標籤:並列短語

如果兩句話所傳遞的信息在重要性上差不多是相等的,就可以把它們一前一後地排列起來,或者用並列連詞把它們連接起來,稱為並列結構。並列結構可以是詞的並列,可以是片語的並列,也可以是分句的並列。並列結構既可以是雙項並列,也可以是多項並列。

1內容概要

並列結構的語法特徵
並列結構可以是詞和詞的並列,可以是的組和片語的並列,也可以是分句和分句的並列。就並列項目的多少來說,並列結構既可以是雙項並列,也可以是多項並列。
I) 雙項並列
雙項並列指兩個詞、兩個片語或者兩個分句的並列,"的並列結構形式。例如:
He is an intelligent and hardworking young man.
That was an exciting but dangerous trip.
Both the parents and their children want to live in the country(住在鄉下).
My father is old,but he is still in good health.
He won't live in the city,nor will his wife.
The man was with a wife but without children.
由上述諸例可以看出,並列結構通常都帶有並列連詞(coordination),並列連詞所連接的兩個項目通常是詞類相同或者結構相同,句法功能也相同。 在上述第一例中出and連接的兩個項目都是形容詞,而且都是作young man的前置修飾話,這就是說並列項目都是在同一語法層次上。反之,如果兩個項目的詞類不同(比如一個是形容詞,一個是名詞),或者句法功能不向(比如一個是作名詞修飾語,一個是作補語),那就不可能構成並列關係。如果詞類相問,句法功能也相同,可是語法層次不同,那也不可能並列起來。例如;
a hardworking young man
a well-known medical school
在上述第一例中hardworking和youn 雖然都是形容詞作名詞的前置修飾語,但youg 修飾man,而hardworking則修飾yougman,因此hardworking和young不在同一層次上,從而不是並列關係。同樣地,在上述第二例中medical修飾school,而well-known則是修飾礎medical school,因此也不是並列關係。 2)多項並列 多項並列指由三個或三個以上項目構成的並列結構。在多項並列結構中,通常是在前面的每個並列項目之後用逗號,在最後一個並列項目之前用連詞。例如:
There is a bed, a wardrobe, a desk, and several chairs in the room.
Among the guests were the Hwiers,the Browns, Professor Lee,and some relatives of hers.
在多項並列結構中,為了達到一定的修辭目的也可以統統用逗號,不用連詞;或者統統用連詞,不用逗號。例如:
Our train qujckIy passed Suzhow,Wuxi,Zhangzhou, and arrived at Nanjing about noon time.
在上述一例中,多項並列結構統統用逗號,給人以節奏明快的感覺。

2語法結構

英語的並列連詞就結構形式來說分為單詞並列連詞(SINGLE-WORD C00RDINATOR),如and,or but:nor yet so; 關聯並列連詞(CORRELATIVE C00RDINATOR),如both…and,not only…but(also),eiher...or,neither…nor,not…but等。此外還有連詞for是介乎並列連河和從屬連詞之間的,本書把它也放在並列連詞中處理。
從語義上劃分,英語的並列連詞義可分為表示語義增進的並列表示因果的並列連詞。
I.表示語義增進的並列連詞
表示語義增進的並列連詞以and為代表,not only..but(aIso),nor,neither..nor等。
語義增進是連詞and所表示的主要意義。
He bought a table and two chairs.
I am interested jn chemitry(化學)and in mathematics(數學)。 John did the work,and he did it wel (約翰做了這件事.而且 做得好。)
You doubt his capacity,and with reson (你懷疑他的能力, 而 且有理由懷疑、)
表示語義增進,and有時還可出現了句首,這主要用於非正式語體。
例如:
Well he doesn't have a fever .And his pulse is fine.
"Just a litt[e cold,Chartie,"say the doctor"Better stay inside
today, Charlie.And take it easy."
"Did you serve in either or my last two campaigns?"
除表爾語義增進,連詞and還可用於其他意義。比如表示對比和轉折: He was city-bred(在城裡長大的),and she was country-bred(在 鄉間氏大的)-She was rough(粗魯),and he was gentle(文雅). He is Jack of a11 trades and masterr of none. (他樣樣劊5會, 門 門不箱。)
There is all talk and no action. (儘是空談,沒有行動.)
He is so rich and lives like a beggar (他北常富有,而生活卻象乞丐一般。)
又例如麥不條件:
Tell him anything,and he just looks at you blankly
(=If you tell him anything,he just looks at you bIankly.)
Give me some more time,and I will show you how it can be done.
Think it over again and you'll find a way out
both...and是對加and意義的強化。例如:
Both Mary and her mother were not there
She is weIl known both for her kindness and for her intelligence.
要注意,both...and在用法上也不完全與and相同。比如我們可以說:
Mary and her mother were not there.
卻通常不說:*Both Mary and her mother were not there.而應說;
Neither Mary nor her mother was there.
又例如and可用來連接兩個分句,而both...and不可以.比如我們可以說:
Mary went marketing,and her mother did the cooking.
卻不可以說:
*Both Mary went marketing, and her mother did the cooking.
再者,and可以連接兩個以上的項目,而both…and卻只限於兩
項。比如我們可以說:
He can sing and dance and play the violin.
He can both sing and dance.
卻和可以說:
*He can both sing and dance and pIay the vioIin.
not only...but(aIso)與both..and意義相近,但側重在後一併列成
分。例如:
NOt only the mother but also the children are sick.
She can not only speak English but also write in it.
與both…and不同,not only...but(also)可用來連接兩個分句,作這種用法時,not only所引導的分句需用倒裝詞序。例如:
Not only was everything he had taken away from him,but also
his German citizenship.(德國公民資格).
nor,neither…nor是表示否定的語義增進,這就是說,如果上文是個否定結構,下文可用nor表示否定意義的增進。例如:
He is not interesed in physics(物理學),nor in biology(生物學).
The job cannot be done by you,nor by me,nor by anyone else.
It was not anger nor surprise,nor disapproval,nor horror, nor
any of the emotions she had been prepared for.
如果用nor連接分句,隨後得用倒裝詞序。例如;
*Both Mary went marketing, and her mother did the cooking.
再者,and可以連接兩個以上的項目,而both…and卻只限於兩項。比如我們可以說:
He can sing and dance and play the violin.
He can both sing and dance.
卻和可以說:
*He can both sing and dance and pIay the vioIin.
not only...but(aIso)與both..and意義相近,但側重在後一併列成分。例如:
NOt only the mother but also the children are sick.
She can not only speak English but also write in it.
與both…and不同,not only...but(also)可用來連接兩個分句,作這種用法時,not only所引導的分句需用倒裝詞序。例如:
Not only was everything he had taken away from him,but also
his German citizenship.(德國公民資格).
nor,neither…nor是表示否定的語義增進,這就是說,如果上文是個否定結構,下文可用nor表示否定意義的增進。例如:
He is not interesed in physics(物理學),nor in biology(生物學).
The job cannot be done by you,nor by me,nor by anyone else.
It was not anger nor surprise,nor disapproval,nor horror, nor
any of the emotions she had been prepared for.
如果用nor連接分句,隨後得用倒裝詞序。例如;
I don't want to go,nor will my wife.
neither... nor表示"既不……又不"的含義,加強了否定的意義例如:
Neither my father nor I will go there
He neither ate,nor drank,nor smoked.
如果用neither…nor連接兩個分句,兩者都要用倒裝詞序。
Neither has he called on her ,nor wtll he do so.
Neither has she much time, nor have I.
在下列諸句中,ne此er可用於nor的意義,但不是並列連厲接副詞:
She didn't give anything and neither did he.
=She didn't give anything,nor did he.
=She didn't give anything;neither did he.
The men were not well-dressed Nor/neither were the women
She hasn't much time and neitherr have I.
2) 表示語義轉折和對比的並列連詞
表示語義轉拆和對比的並列連詞以but為代表,此外還有
not...but,yet,whereas, while,only等。例如:
He is hard-working but not very intelligent .
He would like to go, but he can't.
we were comingto see you , but it rained(so we didn't).
They would have written to you, but you told them not to.
Hc would have said no,but he was afraid.
和and一樣,並列連詞but也可出現於句首,表示語義轉折,
趙連接上下句的作用。例如:
When Galileo toId people of his discovery(發現),no one would
believe him. But Galileo was not discouraged.
When she saw that Abraham liked reading,she did all she could
to help him. But the family was poor and the boy could not get
many books.

3基本連詞

英語常用並列連詞,如:and/but/so/yet/for/nor/or/notonly/……butalso/either…or或neither…nor等連接兩個或幾個同等成分,這種結構稱為並列結構。連接的同等成分可以是動詞的賓語、介詞短語或名詞的定語等。
例1:In general, the tests work most effectively when the qualities to be measured can be most precisely defined and least effectively when what is to be measured or predicted can not be well defined.
例2:Astrophysicists working with ground?based detectors at the South Pole and balloon borne instruments are closing in on such structures, and may report their findings soon.
例3:It is not that the scales in the one case, and the balance in the other, differ in the principles of their construction or manner ofworking; but that the latter is a much finer apparatus and of course much more accurate in its measurement than the former.

4內容補充

連詞是一種虛詞, 它不能獨立擔任句子成分而只起連接詞與詞,短語與短語以及句與句的作用。連詞主要可分為兩類:並列連詞和從屬連詞。並列連詞用來連接平行的詞、片語和分句。如:and, but, or, nor, so, therefore, yet, however, for, hence, as well as, both…and, not only…but also, either…or, neither…nor, (and)then等等。
1. 並列連詞 並列連詞用來連接屬於同一層次並具有相同句法功能的詞;短語或句子。並列連詞包括:基本並列連詞如 and, or , but , 關聯連詞如 either...or , neither...nor , not only...but also ,both ...and, whether...or 等;介於並列連詞與從屬連詞之間的連詞;介於並列連詞與從屬連詞或介詞之間的結構如 as well as , as much as, rather than , more than, no less than 等;此外還有些'半連接詞',一些語法學家把它們稱為連接副詞,如 nevertheless, however, meanwhile, otherwise, likewise 等,它們在句中做連接性狀語。這類連詞主要是從邏輯上,而不是從形式上連接句子,其關係比較鬆散。
1) 表示意義轉折和對比的並列連詞
常見的有:but , while, whereas, still, yet , nevertheless, likewise, anyway , only , conversely , on the contrary, by this time, all the same , fortunately, on the other hand , in the meantime 等詞語。
2) 表示選擇的並列連詞
常見的有: or, whether...or, either...or, otherwise 等。例如:
Either ...or 和 whether...or 表示選擇,其意義比單用 or 要強,但由 whetrher...or 構成的並列結構一般只能擔任句子的從屬成分。上例中最後一句, whether...or 結構在句中擔任句子的從屬成分。 Either ...or 和 or 一樣,可以連接兩個並列的獨立分句,而 whether...or 則不可以。 or 用於表示否定的條件意義時,有時可與連用。
Or 連接主語時,如主語都是單數,動詞則取單數形式;如主語都是複數,動詞則取複數形式,如果主語有的是複數,動詞則取複數形式,如果主語有的是單數,有的是複數,動詞的數則與它靠近的主語的數相一致。
連接兩個主語時,動詞的數也應與靠近他的主語的數相一致。例如:
Neither he nor I am a good student.
3) 表示因果意義的並列並列連詞
常見的有: for ,so ,therfore ,hence ,thus, accordingly, consepuently, on that account, in that case 等。例如:
The fuel must have beeenfinished, for the engine stopped.
It rained , therefore the game was called off.
表示原因的並列連詞只有 for ,它所引導的分句只是對前一分句補充說明理由或推斷原因。 for 引導的分句只能置於句末,而且必須用逗號與前一分句隔開。上面所提到的 so,therefore 等詞,有的語法學家把它們做為連接性狀語。
4) 表示聯合關係的並列連詞
常見的有: and, both...and, neither...nor, not only... but also 等。
當 neither...nor, not only ...but also 連接主語時,動詞的數則與靠近它的主語的數相一致。 Both ...and 不能連接兩個以上的並列成分,也不能連接分句。例如: 誤:Both Mary swept the floor and Nancy mopped it.
5) 其它並列連詞
常見的有: as well as, more than, rather than, no less than 等.
(1) as well as 表示 '同' 和 '也' 的意義
as well as 用作並列連詞時它意義相當於 not only...but also, 但側重點在後一併列成分上而 as well as 側重點卻在前一併列成分上 ,A as well as B=not only B but also A.
(2) more than 表示而不是之意. 例如:
(3) rather than 表示 '而不是' 之意.
(4) no less than 表示 ' 同 ... 一樣 ' 之意.
當 as well as ,more than, rather than, no less than 連接兩個成分作主語時謂語動詞應於第一個成分的數相一致. 在使用並列連詞時我們應該注意:
(1) 並列連詞不可以連用.
(2) 有些連接性狀語副詞可以和某些從屬連詞對應使用.
(3) 在 for 或 so that 引出的分句中如果主語與前一分句的主語所指相同其主語不可以省略. 同樣, 如果第二個分句是由連接副詞引出的其主語通常也不可省略.
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