標籤:用語

指民間非正式、較口語的詞句。《新五代史·卷三十二·死節傳·王彥章傳》中記載,「彥章武人不知書,常為俚語謂人曰:豹死留皮,人死留名!」俚語亦作里語、俚言。外語中俚語slang; slang expression 指的是粗俗的口語,常帶有方言性。

1概述

俚語(lǐyǔ)(Slang),是指民間非正式、較口語的語句,是百姓在日常生活中總結出來的通俗易懂順口的具有地方色彩的詞語。地域性強,較生活化。俚語是一種非正式的語言,通常用在非正式的場合。有時俚語用以表達新鮮事物,或對舊事物賦以新的說法。

2特點

大多數亞文化群喜歡從其常接觸的語言吸取辭彙,賦予新義,有些則借自外語,很少自行構詞的。因之俚語的形成,一如其他辭彙的變形、換義,採用隱喻、明喻、民間詞源、語音改變、語義擴大、縮小語義、截短法、縮略詞、褒義化、貶義化、轉喻、提喻、誇張、外來語及為防禁忌而使用委婉(特殊)說法等。每一種俚語都有其自身的歷史和流行的原因,時過境遷,或改變其義,或轉為標準語,或繼續用於某些飛地。某些俚語去掉其富於刺激性的色彩之後,亦為人們所接受。俚語的流通率無疑因新聞宣傳而不脛而走。有些俚語引進新概念,有些則提供新的表達方式,新穎、辛辣甚至聳人聽聞。扭轉語音、顛倒字母順序而成黑話,或以音、形並用組成韻語。但大多數俚語以形象的謬誤為其基礎,常以新詞用於現成的概念。最有效的俚語往往一語概括所指之物、用物之人及其社會背景。俚語已成為幽默大師及新聞記者所必需的工具,運用得當,可使語言別開生面,推陳出新。語言學家及其他社會科學家因俚語可以反映文化概況而詳加研究。

3英語

英語俚語是一種非正式的語言,通常用在非正式的場合,所以在用這些俚語是一定要考慮到所用的場合和對象,最好不要隨意用這些俚語。俚語因為是不正式語言,所以翻譯成中文時不能夠直接按字面意思翻譯,不然句子翻譯出來意思會很好笑。
解釋
俚語就是美國人生活里常用的語言,和大家學校里學的英語很不一樣。其實中文裡也有很多俚語如:哇塞、當了、不靠譜、絕倒、純爺們兒,這類的語言都是學校里不會教的,因為他們不夠正式。
俚語是學校里不教的「非正式」語言。
場合
要說俚語在什麼場合「適用」,一般來說,俚語適用於「非正式」的「社交」場合。
但是你的公司單位里有老外,他們在你的面前用俚語來表達,那我們就得先看看說話的人是誰了。外國上司,外國上司使用俚語有兩個可能,其中一個可能就是他是一個不拘小節的人,說話直來直往,要不就是他在說話的時候利用俚語來幫助他和他的下屬拉近距離。
俚語適用於非正式的社交場合,一般會用在身份平等的人身上。如果上級喜歡用俚語,那你也可以「適當」的用一些。和上司說話,他用俚語你也可以「適度」的用,但是千萬不要模仿你上司的語氣,不然你下面的人會想「你算老幾啊?」,給老大聽到,他可能會想「你和我說話的語氣一樣,難道你想要我的位子?」
大全
Be in the air將要發生的事情
The feeling or idea that something new is about to happen or isgoing to change
Example:From the arguments going on at the meeting, it seems that achange in policy is in the air.

  Clear the air消除誤會
  
To settle a dispute and restore good relations
  Example:We had a meeting with the workers, and I think we've clearedthe air now.

  Cost an arm and a leg極其昂貴
  
To be very expensive
  Example:I love that fur coat. However, I don't think I'm going to buyit because it costs an arm and a leg.

  A bad egg缺乏道德的人
  
Somebody who has no moral principles and should be avoided
  Example:You mustn't lend Tim money, he's a bad egg. You'll never seehim or your money again!

  In the Bag穩操勝券
  
Said of an achievement which is secure
  Example:We have the deal in the bag. The client came in this morningto sign the agreement.

  In the balance未知的,不可預測的
  
Said when the outcome of a situation is unknown or unpredictable
  Example:His career as a pilot is in the balance, as his eyesight doesnot seem good enough.

  Drive a hard bargain極力討價還價
  
To have the negotiating strength and skills to get the mostadvantageous price and conditions
  Example:Amanda is negotiating the best price from the suppliers. Shedrives a hard bargain.

  Ring a bell看上去或聽起來非常熟悉
  
To look, sound or seem familiar
  Example:That face rings a bell, where have I seen him before?

  Tighten one's belt節衣縮食
  
To cut down on spending because there is less income than before
  Example:Now you are out of work, you'll have to tighten your belt andgive up buying new clothes and going out so often.

  Kill two birds with one stone一石二鳥
  
To complete two tasks together, with less effort than doing themseparately
  Example:Since I'd gone to the store to buy some bread, I thought ofkilling two birds with one stone and invited Mr. Biggs to the party.
Be in a black mood情緒極差
To be so negative about everything that it is impossible foranyone to reason with him/her
  Example:My father has been in a black mood for days, we dare not sayanything to him.
New blood新成員
  
New people brought into an organization to introduce different andoriginal ideas
  Example: It was decided to bring new blood into the school by employingteachers with the latest training.
Feeling blue感到無精打采
  
Feeling sad or depressed
  Example: She's feeling blue, because the man she loves is far away.
Get to the bottom of something弄清真相
  
To find out the truth about something
  Example: I'm trying to get to the bottom of why David left without sayinggoodbye.
A piece of cake輕鬆的事
  
Something which is very easy to do
  Example: Here…let me put the batteries in for you. It's a piece of cake.
Pay a call拜訪
  
To visit somebody
  Example: As we're in this neighborhood, we might as well pay the Jacksons acall, we haven't seen them for ages.
By chance偶然,意外的
  
Unexpectedly; with no prior planning
  Example: By chance, I bumped into my wife in the shopping mall.
Round the clock夜以繼日的
To do something continuously, without a break or pause
  Example: The ambulance services worked round the clock hauling people trappedin the building to safety.
Keep one's cool保持冷靜
  
To stay calm in a difficult situation
  Example: If the traffic is jamed, the only thing to do is keep your cool, orget out of the car and walk!
In a tight corner處於困境
  
In an extremely difficult situation
  Example: Whenever I get into a tight corner, I try to rely on quick thinking toget out of it.
Keep in the dark隱瞞
  
To keep something secret
  Example: We know my brother has a new girlfriend, but he's keeping her name inthe dark.

  Fall on deaf ears不加理睬的,不聽取
  
Not to take any notice of what is said
  Example: The city council's order that garbage should be put in the bins fellon deaf ears; the sidewalks are still littered with trash!

  Take things easy放輕鬆
  
To relax
  Example: It's better for our health to take things easy than to worry aboutproblems all the time.

  Eat like a horse吃得很多
  
To eat a lot; to have a very big appetite
  Example: Fred eats like a horse. When I was a growing lad like him, I used toeat a lot, too.

  Catch one's eye吸引某人注意
  
To attract somebody's attention
  Example: A movement behind the curtain caught my eye – I thought it was aburglar and rushed out of the room!

  Have an eye for something對某事(某物體)了解得非常清楚
  
To be very good at doing something, or have a great understandingof something.
  Example: As a botanist, he has to describe and draw plants accurately, so hemust have an eye for detail.
Turn a blind eye熟視無睹
  
To ignore an action, even though one should do something about it
  Example: Parents will spoil their children if they constantly turn a blind eyeto their bad behavior.
Keep an eye on照看,密切注視
  
To watch carefully; to look after
  Example: Keep an eye on my purse – I'm just going to the bathroom.
Lose face丟臉
  
To have one's reputation spoiled; to be embarrassed
  Example: The large drug houses have lost face, because smaller companies areselling similar products at a cheaper price!
Lead the field處於領頭地位
  
To be the most successful person or group in an activity
  Example: For decades, the House of Dior led the field in elegant fashiondesign.
Get out of hand失去控制
  
To be out of control
  Example: The problem of suicide bombings is getting out of hand; there seems tobe no way to stop them.

  Give a hand提供幫助
  
To help somebody with something
  Example: Please give me a hand and hold this board while I paint it.

  Learn by heart牢記
  
To memorize something; to have learned something word for word orvery precisely
  Example: At school we often learned Shakespeare's sonnets by heart and recitedthem in front of the class.

  On hold尚未辦理的事情
  
Something set aside and waiting to be dealt with
  Example: Our vacation plans are on hold right now; because my Dad's just beenadmitted to hospital with a stomach ulcer.

  A dark horse出乎意料的嬴家
  
An unexpected winner
  Example: A dark horse in this year's basketball cup was Japan!
The bottom line本質內容
  
The most essential part of something
  Example: We've talked a lot about taxation and immigration, but the bottom lineis that we have to create more jobs.
Live it up狂歡一場
  
To enjoy a high standard of living and lead a carefree life
  Example: The neighbors having been living it up ever since they won thesweepstakes.
Look forward to期待著
  
To relish some future prospect; to eagerly await meeting somebody
  Example: You can tell Jake is looking forward to his vacation – he keepstelling us how many days there are left until he finishes college.
Bear in mind記住
  
To remember something which can be of help in the future
  Example: Before you start your perspective drawing, bear in mind you shouldfirst establish a vanishing point.
Have a mind to想做某事,計劃做某事
  
To be decided on ; to intend to
  Example: The service in our hotel was terrible. I have a mind to write a letterof complaint.
Be in the mood想要做某事
  
To feel like doing something
  Example: She is not in the mood for playing cards and says she should really bepreparing her lecture notes.
Over the moon欣喜若狂
  Extremely happy
  Example: She's over the moon about her promotion – she really wasn't expectingit.

  Get a move on趕快
  
To hurry up
  Example: Get a move on! The train is about to leave.

  Over and above這外,額外的
  
In addition to
  Example: Over and above our salary, we are getting a large bonus, becausebusiness has been very profitable this year.

  Get the picture了解某事
  
To understand something, to grasp some meaning
  Example: When they started cutting back and laying people off at work, I gotthe picture and starting looking for another job.
Be out of pocket花光了錢的
  
To be without money
  Example: He's complaining because he spent all of his money on slot machinesand now he's out of pocket.
Keep somebody posted傳達消息
  
To regularly give somebody up-to-date information or details ofthe progress being made
  Example: I phoned in at the end of each working day to keep my boss postedabout developments at the trade conference.
In the long run最終,最後
  
Over a long period of time, once a process has matured
  Example: The grocery store is making a loss right now. In the long run,however, we hope to achieve a situation of stable profit.
On a shoestring生活拮据
  
In a thrifty manner; with costs or spending down to a bare minimum
  Example: She lives on a shoestring – she gets a tiny pension and has to budgetvery tightly.
Lose track of失去消息,失去線索
  
To lose contact with somebody to not know where something is
  Example: I lost track of Fran when she moved to Boston. I've even tried tolocate her on the Internet.
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