標籤:過去分詞動名詞現在分詞

不定式定義:由to+動詞原形構成。不定式是一種非限定性動詞。而非限定動詞是指那些在句中不能單獨充當謂語的動詞,可分為不定式,動名詞,現在分詞和過去分詞。「動詞不定式」由動詞+不定式構成。動詞不定式在句中可以作句子除謂語之外的任何句子成分。動詞不定式的被動形式除了一般形式外還有其完成式和進行式。

1基本信息

動詞不定式可以作以上各種成分,但它畢竟是動詞,所以有動詞的屬性。
動詞不定式及其短語還可以有自己的賓語、狀語,雖然動詞不定式在語法上沒有表面上的直接主語,但它表達的意義是動作,這一動作一定由使動者發出。這一使動者我們稱之為邏輯主語,其形式如下:

2詳細信息

時態
1) 現在時:一般現在時表示的動詞,有時與謂語動詞表示的動作同時發生,有時發生在謂語動詞的動作之後。
He seems to know this.
I hope to see you again. = I hope that I'll see you again. 我希望再見到你。
2) 完成時:表示的動作發生在謂語動詞表示的動作之前。
I'm sorry to have given you so much trouble.
He seems to have caught a cold.
3)進行時:表示動作正在進行,與謂語動詞表示的動作同時發生。
He seems to be eating something.
4)完成進行時:
She is known to have been wreaking on the problem for many years.
一般在情緒后加to do也表將來
作主語
動詞不定式作主語時,句子的謂語動詞常用單數,其位置有以下兩種:
(1)把不定式置於句首。如:
To get there by bike will take us half an hour.
騎自行車到那兒將花費我們半個小時。
To make up for lost time is not possible.
要彌補失去的時光是不可能的。
To lean out of the window is dangerous.
身子探出窗外很危險。
To save money now seems impossible.
現在好像不可能存錢。
(2)用it作形式主語,把真正的主語不定式置於句后,常用於下列句式中。如:
①It+be+名詞+to do
It's our duty to take good care of the old.
這是照顧老人是我們的責任。
②It takes sb+some time+to do
How long did it take you to finish the work?
你花了多少時間來完成這項工作嗎?
③It+be+形容詞+for sb+to do
It is difficult for us to finish writing the composition in a quarter of an hour.
我們難以在四分之一小時內完成這篇作文。
It is stupid of you to write down everything (that) the teacher says.
It is an offence to drop litter in the street.
在馬路上亂丟廢物是違章的。
④It seems(appears)+形容詞+to do
It seemed impossible to save money.
在句型③中,常用表示客觀情況的形容詞,如:difficult,easy,hard,important,impossible,necessary 等;在句型④中,常用careless,clever,good,foolish,honest,kind,lazy,nice,right,silly,stupid,wise等 表示讚揚或批評的詞。在不定式前的sb,可看作其邏輯主語。這一句式有時相當於Sb is+形容詞+to do句式 ,如:It's kind of you to help me with my English.=You are kind to helpme with my English.
⑤It + 不定式結構可位於believe/consider/discover/expect/find/think和wonder之後
He thought it would be safer to go by train.
他認為乘火車比較安全。
He will find it is hard to make friends.
他會感覺到交朋友困難。
⑥不定式的完成式也可作句子的主語
To have made the same mistake twice was unforgivable.
兩次犯同樣的錯誤是不可原諒的。
It is better to have loved and lost than never to have loved at all.
愛過而後失去了愛,比從未愛過要好。
(3)舉例
(1) It's easy (for me) to do that.我做這事太容易了
easy, difficult, hard, important, possible, impossible, comfortable, necessary, better;
the first, the next, the last, the best, too much, too little, not enough
It's so nice to hear your voice.
聽到你的聲音真高興。
It's necessary for you to lock the car when you do not use it.
當你不用車的時候,鎖車是有必要的。
(2) It's very kind of him to help us. 他幫助我們,他真好。
Kind, nice, stupid, rude, clever, foolish, thoughtful, thoughtless, brave, considerate(考慮周到的), silly, selfish(自私的)
例句:
It was silly of us to believe him. 我們真愚蠢,竟然相信了他。
It seemed selfish of him not to give them anything. 他不給他們任何東西,這顯得太自私了。
注意:(1) 其他系動詞如,look,appear等也可用於此句型
(2) 不定式作為句子成分時,動詞用單數形式。
(3) 當不定式作主語的句子中又有一個不定式作表語時,不能用It is… to…的句型
(對)To see is to believe. 眼見為實。
(錯)It is to believe to see.

3作賓語

介紹
(1)情態動詞( 除ought 外,ought to意思是「應該」,是情態動詞,只有一種形式,後邊接動詞不定式,to不能省略。ought to沒有人稱和數的變化,後接動詞原形可以表示現在、將來或過去將來,由時間狀語或上下文決定。例如:
They ought to come tomorrow.他們明天應當來):
(2)使役動詞let,have,make:
(3)感官動詞see,watch,look at,notice,observe,hear,listen to,smell,feel,find 等後作賓補,省略to。
注意:在被動語態中則to 不能省掉。
使役動詞中get除外(get sb. to do sth.)
I saw him dance.
=He was seen to dance.
The boss made them work the whole night.
=They were made to work the whole night.
(4) 表示個人意願或傾向的would rather,had better,might(just) as well:rather than置於句首時。
Rather than ride on a crowded bus,he always prefers to ride a bike.
(5) Why… / why not…:
(6) help 可帶to,也可不帶to,help sb (to) do sth:
(7) but和except:but前是動詞do時,後面出現的動詞用不帶to的動詞不定式。
(8) 由and,or和than連接的兩個不定式,第二個to 可以省去:
(9) 通常在discover,imagine,suppose,think,understand等詞后,可以省去to be:
He is supposed (to be) nice. 他應該是個好人。
(10)but作介詞,後接不定式結構時,前面謂語動詞部分若含有do的形式時,but后的不定式要省去to,否則要帶to。
He wants to do nothing but go out.
He wants to believe anything but to take the medicine.
(11)當兩個或多個不定時短語由連詞and,but或or連接時,后一個或幾個不定式符號to常省略。但若表示對比、對照關係時,則不能省略。
He wants to move to France and marry the girl.
The purpose of new technologies is to make life easier,not to make it more difficult.
(12)不定式做表語時,一般要帶to,但若主語部分中含有do的各種形式時,符號to可省去。
We've missed the last bus.All we could do now is walk home.
目錄
1 stop to do stop doing
2 forget to do forget doing
3 remember to do remember doing
4 regret to do regret doing
5 cease to do cease doing
6 try to do try doing
7 go on to do go on doing
8 afraid to do afraid doing
9 interested to do interested doing
10 mean to do mean doing
11 begin/ start to do begin/ start doing
stop doing/to do
stop to do 停止,中斷做某事後去做另一件事。
stop doing 停止做某事。
They stop to smoke a cigarette. 他們停下來,抽了根煙。
I must stop smoking. 我必須戒煙了。
典型例題
She reached the top of the hill and stopped ___ on a big rock by the
side of the path.
A. to have rested B. resting C. to rest D. rest
答案:C。由題意可知,她到了山頂,停下來在一個路邊的大石頭上休息。因此,應選擇「stop to do sth.
停下來去做另一件事」。而不僅僅是爬山動作的終止,所以stop doing sth.不正確。
regret doing/to do
regret to do 對要做的事遺憾。 (未做)
regret doing 對做過的事遺憾、後悔。 (已做)
I regret to have to do this,but I have no choice.
我很遺憾必須這樣去做,我實在沒有辦法。
I don't regret telling her what I thought.
我不為告訴她我的想法而後悔。
典型例題
---You were brave enough to raise objections at the meeting.
---Well,now I regret ___ that.
A. to do B. to be doing C. to have done D. having done
答案:D。regret having done sth. 對已發生的事感到遺憾。regret to do sth.
對將要做的事感到遺憾。本題為對已說的話感到後悔,因此選D。
try doing/to do
try to do 努力,企圖做某事。
try doing 試驗,試著做某事。
You must try to be more careful.
你可要多加小心。
I tried gardening but didn't succeed.
我試著種果木花卉,但未成功。
be afraid doing/to do
be afraid to do 不敢,膽怯去做某事,是主觀上的原因不去做,意為「怕」;
be afraid of doing 擔心出現doing的狀況、結果。doing 是客觀上造成的,意為「生怕,恐怕」。
She was afraid to step further in grass because she was afraid of being
bitten by a snake.
她生怕被蛇咬著,而不敢在草叢中再走一步。
She was afraid to wake her husband.
她不敢去叫醒她丈夫。
She was afraid of waking her husband.
她生怕吵醒她丈夫。
.
mean doing/to do
mean to do 打算、想
mean doing 意味著
I mean to go,but my father would not allow me to.
我想去,但是我父親不肯讓我去。
To raise wage means increasing purchasing power.
贈加工資意味著增加購買力。
不定式被動式的用法
不定式到底用主動形式還是被動形式,往往取決於句子的意思,即意思上為主動就用主動形式,意思上為被動就用被動形式:
Did it need to be done so soon? 這事需要這麼快就做嗎?
She can』t bear to be laughed at. 她受不了被人嘲笑。
There was business to be taken care of. 有生意要人管理。
It remains to be seen whether you are right. 你是否正確,以後見分曉。
There was a lot of rubbish to be got rid of. 有大量垃圾需要扔掉。

不定式完成被動式的用法

不定式的完成被動式表示發生在謂語動作之前的被動動作:
I』m pleased to have been given this opportunity. 給了我這次機會我很高興。
It』s said to have been built in the Ming dynasty. 據說它是明朝修建的。

4完成式

表示發生在謂語動作之前的動作
He seems to have caught a cold. 他似乎感冒了。
I hate to have quarreled with her. 我後悔和她吵架了。
I believe it to have been a mistake. 我相信這是一個錯誤。
You appear to have travelled quite a lot. 你似乎作過多次旅行。
I』m sorry to have given you so much trouble. 對不起給了你這麼多麻煩。
It』s said to have been built in the Ming dynasty. 據說它是明朝修建的。
表示在某個給定的時間之前已完成的動作
I hope to have finished the work by now. 我希望現在以前已完成這項工作。
表示過去未曾實現的想法和願望
I should like to have come earlier. 我本想早點來的。
We were to have been married last year. 我們本來打算去年結婚的。

5進行式

形式
to have been + 現在分詞
He seems to have been spying for both sides.
他似乎一直在為兩方面搞秘密情報。
用法
只要用於助動詞之後和appear,seem之後,但也可以用在happen,pretend以及believe,know,report,say,understand的被動式之後:
He appears to have been waiting a long time.相當於:
It appears that he has been waiting a long time.
看來他已經等了很久了。
He pretended to have been studying. 相當於:
He pretended that he had been studying.
他假裝一直在學習的樣子。

6句型用法

在There be句型中的動詞不定式:
For example one,There are too much homework to write.
two,There are students writing too much homework.
上一篇[摩托羅拉 RAZR2 V8]    下一篇 [流音]

相關評論

同義詞:暫無同義詞