1意義

動詞本身的狀態

2用法

在現行的初中英語教材中,大致有以下十種情況使用動詞原形:
1.與助動詞或情態動詞do, does, did, shall, will, should, would, may, might, have to, must, need, ought to等一起構成謂語的動詞時,要用原形。如:
Do you like English? 你喜歡英語嗎?
May I use your telephone? 我可以用你的電話嗎?
We must study hard and make progress every day. 我們必須好好學習,天天向上。
Shall we tell her to wait? 我們要不要告訴她等一下?
2.祈使句的謂語動詞,要用原形。如:
Close the door behind you, please. 請隨手關上門。
Don't make a noise. 別吵鬧。
Let's live in peace and friendship. 讓我們生活在和平和友誼之中。
3.感官動詞look at, see, watch, notice, listen to, hear, feel等的賓語與其補足語構成邏輯上的主謂關係,表示動作的最後結果或全過程時,作賓語補足語的動詞要用原形。但改成被動語態要帶to。如:
I saw the train come into the station. 我看見火車進站了。
I heard a letter drop.(A letter was heard to drop.) 我聽到信掉了下去。
4.使役動詞let, have, make后的賓語與作賓語補足語的動詞構成邏輯上的主謂關係時,這個動詞要用原形。但改成被動語態要帶to;let后的動詞可不帶to, 如:
He let Jack lead the way. 他讓傑克在前面帶路。
Have him send the letter. 叫他把信送去。
His jokes made us all laugh. 他的笑話使我們都大笑起來。
Everyone must be made to know nobody should break the law.
應使每個人都知道,誰也不得違法。
5.兩個以上的並列不定式用and或or連接起來,第二個不定式常省去to。如:
Let's go and play football.我們去踢球。
It is fun to jump into pool or go swimming in a river in summer.
在夏天跳進游泳池或江河裡去游泳是很有趣的。
6.在why not…和why…句型中,not和why后直接跟動詞原形,構成反問,表示「建議、勸告、責備或提醒」等。如:
Why not use my bicycle? 為什麼不用我的自行車呢?
Why waste so much money? 為什麼要浪費那麼多錢呢?
7.動詞help后是複合賓語,其賓語補足語由動詞充當時,這個動詞前帶to或不帶to都可,但在被動語態中必須帶to。如:
She helped me (to) clean the room.
(I was helped to clean the room byher.)他幫我打掃房間。
8. do ,does,did與動詞原形連用,以加強語氣,不但可以用在祈使句中,而且也可用在一般現在時和一般過去時的肯定陳述句中。如:
Do be careful! 一定要當心!
She does look nice today. 她今天看起來的確漂亮。
I did think be was wrong. 我的確認為他錯了。
9.不定式作介詞but和except的賓語,當其前有實意動詞do時,後面的動詞不定式要省略to。如:
Jack had nothing to do but/except watch TV. 傑克除了看電視外無事可做。
10.在一些固定的句型中,如had better(最好),would rather (寧願),would rather…that…(寧願…而不)等後面的動詞要用原形。如:
You had better have a good rest. 你最好好好休息一下。
He would rather go to work by bike. 他寧願騎自行車去上班。
As a revolutionary,he would rather die with his head high than live with his knees bent. 作為革命者,他寧願昂首而死,而不願屈膝求生。

3用作時態

介詞后一般用動詞的ing形式。用動詞原形的情況有很多,一般使役動詞如have, make, let等後用動原;感官動詞后既可接動原也可接動詞ing形式,感官動詞有see,watch,hear等,接動詞原形表示動作已經完成,接動詞ing形式表示動作正在進行。這個需要具體記憶,有些動詞後面固定了接動詞ing形式[2-3]. 固定搭配:如want sb. to do sth.等等
  2.一般現在時用動詞原形,但是第三人稱要用單三。如
  I do...
  you do...
  she/he/it does...
  we do...
  you do...
  they do...

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