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⒈不承認事物的存在或事物的真實性。郁達夫 《文學上的階級鬥爭》:「他們否定生命,否定自我,所以否定一切。」巴金《家》七:「『我就不信!』 覺慧 堅決地否定說。」
(Prefixes and suffixes)
增添詞綴,即前綴或後綴,使原來的詞由肯定意義化為否定意義。常用的否定前綴有ab- / dis- / il- / ill- / im- / in- / ir- / mis- / non- / un-等,否定後綴有-less / -free等,例如:
--It is abnormal for him to walk in his sleep. (夢遊症)
--This will disqualify (使…沒有資格) him from taking part in the game.
--The ship was leaky (漏) and very much disabled.
--Your remark is ill-timed.
--Every word he said was impossible of belief.
--The new evidence has completely invalidated(使…站不住腳)his theory.
--To be afraid of the number 13 is irrational.
--He bore (忍受) his misfortunes bravely.
--On the sea there were fleets of nondescript ships—converted yachts,riverboats,tugs and barges. (在海上有成批的無法歸類的船隻——改裝的遊艇、河裡的小船、拖船和駁船。)
--Such criticism is meaningless.
--The cause of the accident remains unknown to us.
--Water is incompatible (不相容)with fire.
--She is getting impatient.
--The method of working is useless.
--She is reckless of consequence. (她是不顧後果的。)
--She dislikes being spoken to like this.
--The sea is ice-free.
--He bought two bottles of wine at the duty-free (免稅) shop.
--Thank you for your invaluable (寶貴的) help.
--That nurse was indifferent (冷漠) to the sufferings of the patients.
--Oil is inflammable. (油容易燃燒。)
--Something seems to have unloosed her tongue.(不知什麼事情使她說個沒完。)
--Styles come and go,but good taste is timeless.(風格隨時在變,而風雅是永恆的。)
--He』s a shameless (無恥) liar.
--Works of art,historical monuments and priceless history records were ruthlessly destroyed. (藝術品、歷史上遺留下來的紀念品以及珍貴的歷史文獻慘遭破壞。)
--I seldom get any sleep after the baby wakes up.
--I』ve spoken to hardly anyone who disagrees with me on this point.
否定詞在句首時,主語和功能詞位置要顛倒,也就是說,語序是功能詞 + 主語(除非否定詞包括在主語之內)。
在否定句中,any類詞不只跟在not或n』t後面,也跟在nobody, no,scarcely等其他否定詞後面。
Hardly/scarcely與不定代詞anybody,anyone,anything並列在一起,相當於almost not a 或almost not one 的意思。
--Hardly/Scarcely anybody believes that.
--I hardly/scarcely saw anything.
副詞seldom和rarely是not often 的意思。例如:
--I seldom get any sleep.
--Living as they do in a remote (偏遠的) village,they rarely have visitors.
副詞little是not much 的意思,一般修飾形容詞和動詞。例如:
--He is little known around here.
--I saw little of her last year. (去年我很少見到她。)
--I have never seen such a device.
--I never said such a thing.
--Only two of us had any experience in sailing.
--He never intended to use the method. (他從來沒想使用這種方法。)
--He intended never to use the method.(他想從此不再使用這種方法了。)
--Rarely does crime pay so well as many people think.
--Scarcely ever has the British nation suffered so much.
--Little did I expect such enthusiasm from so many. (Crowell)
--Only his mother will he obey.
--Only his mother he will obey. =It』s only his mother that he will obey. (Quirk)
--Only on Sundays do they eat with their children. (only修飾狀語on Sundays)
--He is down in health. (他身體欠佳。)
--We have the afternoon off on Saturdays. (我們星期六下午不工作。)
--I think it will rain this afternoon,but my brother thinks otherwise.(我認為今天下午會下雨,但是我弟弟不這樣想。)
--He stood still,trying vainly to answer my question.(他愣愣的站著,回答不出我的問題。)
--The Labour Party was out (of power). (工黨不掌權了。)
這類短語有:fall/run short (of) (缺乏),free from,keep from,keep off,lose sight of,protect from,refrain from,save from,turn a deaf ear,make light of,warn against,prevent from等。例如:
--We have run short of rubber and wood again.
--He falls short in a number of respects in punctuality,in courtesy,and in attention to his work.
--It is a day that frees from wind (無風).
--He kept the matter from everybody』s knowledge.
--The antibiotics (抗生素) have protected millions of people from being killed by bacteria (細菌).
--He saved the boy from drowning (淹死).
--He turned a deaf ear to my advice.
--He makes light of everything. (他把什麼都不當一回事。)
--He warned me against smoking in the library.
可以用來表示否定意義的副詞短語有:apart from,away from,out of 等。例如:
--He kept himself apart from other children.(他與其他孩子不合群。)
--Apart from the cost,the hat doesn』t suit me.(這帽子不合適,更不說價錢貴了。)
--Stay away from the fire! (不要靠近火!)
--The ancient town is out of existence.
可以用來表示否定意義的複合連詞有:but that,in case that,except that,excepting that,for ,fear that,or (else),rather than,save that,saving that,still less等。例如:
--Who knows but that it may be so? (誰能說不會這樣呢?)
--He would have helped us but that he was short of money at the time. (要不是他那時沒有錢,他會幫助我們的。)
--Keep silence,or else I shall stop speaking. (保持安靜,否則我就不講了。)
--They are engaged in designing an engine rather than (in) repairing the machine. (他們從事發動機的設計工作,而不是修理那台機器。)
--You should help them rather than they should help you.
--This book is difficult rather than easy for me to read.(這本書我讀起來並不容易,而是相當困難。)
--She doesn』t like music,much less dancing.
--I don』t accuse you of falsehood,still less of dishonesty.(我不會控告你的虛偽,更不會控告你的欺詐。)
--He could not operate the machine,still less could he fix it. (Wang)
--I know nothing about him except that he lives next door. (Zhan)
--He』s working hard for fear (that) he should fail. (Oxf)
--We have no news save that the ship reached port safely.
注意 still less 是用於否定句之後,less是否定副詞little 的比較級。所以,still less 比句子前一部分的否定更進一步的深入。much less 和even less 與still less 意思相同。使用still less 時,如果后一部分是句子時,后一部分必須倒裝。使用still less 時,如果句子的前半部分沒有否定詞not,雖則是否定意義時,一般不用still less,而用still more。例如:
--Proof reading is uninteresting,still more so when it is one』s own work.
使用still less 短語時,要否定的句子成分必須和前面的句子成分相對稱,rather than短語用法也一樣(如例句所示)。rather than 短語可以表示主觀願望的抉擇,即「寧願……而不……」、「不是(或不應該是)這樣,而是(或應該是)那樣」。此時,句中多半有would,had等詞;rather than短語還可以反映客觀上的差異,即表示「與其說是……不如說是……」、「倒不如說」之意。
--save that 和 saving that 作「除了」解,這是比較文氣陳舊的用法,通常用except that和excepting that。
(Position of not)
定;not所處的這些位置使否定句被劃分為二大類:即「一般否定句」 和「特指否定句」。下面就以這
1 Not在「一般否定句」中的位置
a. not放在聯繫動詞之後
--China of today is not what it was twenty years ago.
--Isn』t that Teddy Thomson out?
--Is that Teddy Thomson not out?
不可以說:*Is not that Teddy Thomson out?
--We are not going to do it.
--Tom was not fooled by his friend.
3)在 there is,there are 表示存在的句型中,not否定副詞放在聯繫動詞(be)後面,there 在這裡是引導詞。not a 後面跟單數名詞,not any 跟複數名詞或不可數名詞。例如:
--There is not a moment to be lost. (分秒必爭)。
--There is not any water in the bottle.
b. 放在助動詞(do)之後,實義動詞之前。
如果句中只有行為動詞,在構成否定式時,就需在行為動詞的前面加do not (doesn』t),過去時一概用did not (didn』t)。例如:
--I don』t know why Mr. Cooper is so angry today.
--They did not steal so much.
--She does not have his letter. (她沒有收到他的信)
--I did not have breakfast this morning.
1)have 意為「有」、「具有」時,可以直接在其後加not,也可以藉助do(does,did)構成否定式。例如:
--They have not a swimming pool in their school. (英國英語)
--They do not have a swimming pool in their school. (美國英語)
--He didn』t have a rest after lunch.
--They have not finished the work.
--I know not why I am so sad.
--He,hearing this,knew not how to behave,nor how to answer her.
--We are fleet-winged men at arms; we fear not mountains or rivers deep.
--The doctor suggested that my father not go to New York.
--It is important that he not give up hope because of difficulties in his work.
--It is requested that the delivery of goods not be delayed.
c. 放在情態動詞后。
--She won』t object.
--He wouldn』t stand that type of music.
--He dare not do it.
2 Not在「特指否定句」 中的位置
a. not位於主語之前。例如:
--Not a soul was anywhere visible.
--Not many of us wanted the war.
b. not 位於主語補語之前。
一般來說,not位於聯繫動詞之後,否定謂語動詞be,屬「一般否定句」。然而有時,雖然位於聯繫動詞之後,卻不是為了否定謂語動詞,而是否定主語補語,屬「特指否定句 」。例如:
--It』s not a cat,but a dog.
--His object is not to eat. (他的目的是不吃飯)
c. not位於賓語之前。例如:
--You must always remember not to become conceited. (自負)
--I can not risk not telling him.
--We felt sorry for not coming on time.
--The teacher told his students not to make such a mistake again. (否定複合賓語的第二部分)
在I think,I believe,I feel. I suppose,I expect 等引出的賓語從句中,英語習慣將從句中的否定詞not 放在主句中。這種句子形式上是否定主句謂語動詞的,實際上是否定賓語從句的。例如:
--I don』t think it』s right to make such a hasty decision.
--I don』t believe that he will come tomorrow.
--I didn』t expect you would do such a thing.
d. not位於定語之前。
--Not all the books are good.
--Not two native speakers of English speak it alike.
--Not every student can do the problem.
e. not位於狀語之前。例如:
--I went to see him off,not to meet him.
--They suffered not a little through the war.
--Not knowing his address,I did not write to him.
--Not surprisingly,he failed in the final exam.
--He didn』t walk across the park. (not否定across the park)
--You can』t judge a thing only by its looks. (not 否定by its looks)
--He didn』t leave college because he was tired of learning. (not 否定原因狀語從句)
--I didn』t go because I was afraid. (not否定原因狀語從句)
此句中,顯然有兩個不同的意思:第一個意思是:「我沒有去因為我害怕」;第二個意思是:「我並非因為害怕而去」。第一義,not 否定謂語動詞,屬「一般否定句」;第二義,not否定非謂語成分,即原因狀語從句,屬「特指否定句」。此歧義可以在I didn't go 之後上標上一個表示停頓的逗號而得以消除。
--I didn』t go,because I was afraid.
f. 謂語內的陳述詞否定。
--They may not go swimming. (=They are allowed not to go swimming.) (他們可以不去游泳。)
--You could not attend any of the lectures. (=It』s possible for you not to attend any of the lectures.)
--I can』t not obey the order. (= It is not possible for me not to obey the order.或I have to obey the order.)
--You can』t not admire her. (=It is not possible for you not to admire her.或You have to admire her.)
(Partial negation)
部分否定是局部地或在一定程度上否定一個事物的成立、存在或真實性。在日常英語中,表示部分否定通常可以同以下四種方式表達:a. 用表示「部分」意思的some/sometimes等詞加上否定詞;b. 用否定詞not加上表示「較大數量」或「較大程度」的many/much等詞;c. 用否定詞not + 表示 「整體」、「全體」意思的all/entirely等詞;d. 否定詞與and連接的兩個並列詞語連用。
a. 用表示「部分」意思的some/sometimes等詞 + 否定詞。這種形式,可以表示部分否定的概念。例如:
--Some students are not right in answering the question.
--Sometimes you are not right.
b. 用否定詞not + many/much等詞。
部分否定也是對較大數量或較大程度的否定,因此可以用not + many / much / very much / some 來表示部分否定的概念。例如:
--There are not many books on the shelf.
--There is not much water left in the bottle.
--I don』t like classic very much.
--I don』t like some of his poems.
c. 用否定詞not + 表示「整體」、「全體」的意思的all/entirely等詞
部分否定是對全部肯定的否定,因此可以用not + all / every / both / always / fully / wholly / altogether / entirely / quite來表示部分否定的概念。例如:
--All is not gold that glitters. (是發光的並非都是黃金。)
--All the answers are not right. (答案並非全對。)
--I don』t know all of them. (對於他們我不是個個都認識。)
--Not all the students will be translators.
--Every one cannot make music. (不是所有的人都懂音樂。)
--Everybody wouldn』t like it. (並不是人人都喜歡它。)
--Not everything is attractive and interesting over there.
--Not everyone can play the violin.
--Not every man can do it.
--Both children are not clever. (兩個孩子並不都是聰明的。)
--I don』t like both of the novels. (這兩本小說我不是都喜歡。)
--Not both methods are practical.
--Such a thing is not found everywhere.
--A man of learning is not always a man of wisdom.
--We don』t wholly agree with him.
--This kind of person is never to be entirely trusted.
--Joanna was not altogether satisfied with the sailor.
--The new house is not quite what it should be.
d. 否定詞與and連接的兩個並列詞語連用
--He did not speak clearly and correctly.(他不能講得清楚而正確。即:他講得清楚但不正確。)
--The lecture was not instructive and interesting.(講座頗有教育意義,但不生動。)
--I am sorry. But I simply cannot stay up night after night at parties and work the next morning. (對不起,我只是不能天天在晚會上熬夜,而第二天早上又得工作。)
1) 否定詞後用and連接兩個並列成分時,有時會出現兩種情況:要麼僅否定其中的一個並列成分(多為後者),要麼兩個並列成分雙雙受到否定(此時and的作用與or相同),這樣便會造成句子出現歧義。例如:
--He doesn』t have long hair and wear jeans. (他並非既蓄長發,又穿工作褲。或:他沒有蓄長發也沒有穿工作褲。)
--You cannot eat your cake and have it. (諺語:魚和熊掌不能兼得。)只有一種含義:「事無雙全」。
2) 否定詞與由as well as連接的兩個並列結構連用時,否定詞只否定as well as之前的部分,而對 as well as後面的部分卻表示肯定。例如:
--I shall not go as well as you. (你去,但我不去。)
--Tom does not speak French as well as English. (湯姆說英語,但不說法語。)