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詞語否定,是用來否認一個事實的成立、存在或真實性的,在英語中表達這一意思就要藉助一些否定詞如nothing、few、little等。

1漢語詞語

詳細解釋
⒈不承認事物的存在或事物的真實性。郁達夫 《文學上的階級鬥爭》:「他們否定生命,否定自我,所以否定一切。」巴金《家》七:「『我就不信!』 覺慧 堅決地否定說。」
⒉邏輯學名詞。表示否認的;反面的。與「肯定」相對。如「否定判斷」。
前綴和後綴
(Prefixes and suffixes)
增添詞綴,即前綴或後綴,使原來的詞由肯定意義化為否定意義。常用的否定前綴有ab- / dis- / il- / ill- / im- / in- / ir- / mis- / non- / un-等,否定後綴有-less / -free等,例如:
--It is abnormal for him to walk in his sleep. (夢遊症)
--This will disqualify (使…沒有資格) him from taking part in the game.
--The ship was leaky (漏) and very much disabled.
--Your remark is ill-timed.
--Every word he said was impossible of belief.
--The new evidence has completely invalidated(使…站不住腳)his theory.
--To be afraid of the number 13 is irrational.
--He bore (忍受) his misfortunes bravely.
--On the sea there were fleets of nondescript ships—converted yachts,riverboats,tugs and barges. (在海上有成批的無法歸類的船隻——改裝的遊艇、河裡的小船、拖船和駁船。)
--Such criticism is meaningless.
--The cause of the accident remains unknown to us.
--Water is incompatible (不相容)with fire.
--She is getting impatient.
--The method of working is useless.
--She is reckless of consequence. (她是不顧後果的。)
--She dislikes being spoken to like this.
--The sea is ice-free.
--He bought two bottles of wine at the duty-free (免稅) shop.
上述否定詞綴一般都表示否定,但是有時有些否定詞綴(前綴,後綴)並不表示否定。例如:
--Thank you for your invaluable (寶貴的) help.
--That nurse was indifferent (冷漠) to the sufferings of the patients.
--Oil is inflammable. (油容易燃燒。)
--Something seems to have unloosed her tongue.(不知什麼事情使她說個沒完。)
--Styles come and go,but good taste is timeless.(風格隨時在變,而風雅是永恆的。)
--He』s a shameless (無恥) liar.
--Works of art,historical monuments and priceless history records were ruthlessly destroyed. (藝術品、歷史上遺留下來的紀念品以及珍貴的歷史文獻慘遭破壞。)
定詞
1)否定詞後面一般不用some類詞而用any類詞,這是由some類詞和any類詞的語法特徵所決定的。some一般用於肯定陳述句,any一般用於yes-no問句和否定詞後面。例如:
--I seldom get any sleep after the baby wakes up.
--I』ve spoken to hardly anyone who disagrees with me on this point.
否定詞在句首時,主語和功能詞位置要顛倒,也就是說,語序是功能詞 + 主語(除非否定詞包括在主語之內)。
在否定句中,any類詞不只跟在not或n』t後面,也跟在nobody, no,scarcely等其他否定詞後面。
Hardly/scarcely與不定代詞anybody,anyone,anything並列在一起,相當於almost not a 或almost not one 的意思。
--Hardly/Scarcely anybody believes that.
--I hardly/scarcely saw anything.
副詞seldom和rarely是not often 的意思。例如:
--I seldom get any sleep.
--Living as they do in a remote (偏遠的) village,they rarely have visitors.
副詞little是not much 的意思,一般修飾形容詞和動詞。例如:
--He is little known around here.
--I saw little of her last year. (去年我很少見到她。)
2)never為否定詞,only在某種程度上也是一個否定詞。當only強調錶示主語的名詞片語時,可與any連用。例如:
--I have never seen such a device.
--I never said such a thing.
--Only two of us had any experience in sailing.
注意:never在句中的位置和not相同,但如果never的位置放置不同,句意就不同。例如:
--He never intended to use the method. (他從來沒想使用這種方法。)
--He intended never to use the method.(他想從此不再使用這種方法了。)
以上1)和2)中的否定或有否定含義的副詞時常放在陳述句首,以表示強調,而其後所用的詞序用倒裝語序。
--Rarely does crime pay so well as many people think.
--Scarcely ever has the British nation suffered so much.
--Little did I expect such enthusiasm from so many. (Crowell)
Only強調的句首部分不是主語部分時,其後所用的詞序有時可用倒裝,也可以不用倒裝。例如:
--Only his mother will he obey.
比較:
--Only his mother he will obey. =It』s only his mother that he will obey. (Quirk)
--Only on Sundays do they eat with their children. (only修飾狀語on Sundays)
3)可以用來表示否定意義的副詞還有down,off,otherwise,out,vainly等。例如:
--He is down in health. (他身體欠佳。)
--We have the afternoon off on Saturdays. (我們星期六下午不工作。)
--I think it will rain this afternoon,but my brother thinks otherwise.(我認為今天下午會下雨,但是我弟弟不這樣想。)
--He stood still,trying vainly to answer my question.(他愣愣的站著,回答不出我的問題。)
--The Labour Party was out (of power). (工黨不掌權了。)
動詞短語
這類短語有:fall/run short (of) (缺乏),free from,keep from,keep off,lose sight of,protect from,refrain from,save from,turn a deaf ear,make light of,warn against,prevent from等。例如:
--We have run short of rubber and wood again.
--He falls short in a number of respects in punctuality,in courtesy,and in attention to his work.
(他在守時、禮貌和專心工作等幾方面都有不足之處。)
--It is a day that frees from wind (無風).
--He kept the matter from everybody』s knowledge.
--The antibiotics (抗生素) have protected millions of people from being killed by bacteria (細菌).
--He saved the boy from drowning (淹死).
--He turned a deaf ear to my advice.
--He makes light of everything. (他把什麼都不當一回事。)
--He warned me against smoking in the library.
副詞短語
可以用來表示否定意義的副詞短語有:apart from,away from,out of 等。例如:
--He kept himself apart from other children.(他與其他孩子不合群。)
--Apart from the cost,the hat doesn』t suit me.(這帽子不合適,更不說價錢貴了。)
--Stay away from the fire! (不要靠近火!)
--The ancient town is out of existence.
連詞短語
可以用來表示否定意義的複合連詞有:but that,in case that,except that,excepting that,for ,fear that,or (else),rather than,save that,saving that,still less等。例如:
--Who knows but that it may be so? (誰能說不會這樣呢?)
--He would have helped us but that he was short of money at the time. (要不是他那時沒有錢,他會幫助我們的。)
--Keep silence,or else I shall stop speaking. (保持安靜,否則我就不講了。)
--They are engaged in designing an engine rather than (in) repairing the machine. (他們從事發動機的設計工作,而不是修理那台機器。)
--You should help them rather than they should help you.
--This book is difficult rather than easy for me to read.(這本書我讀起來並不容易,而是相當困難。)
--She doesn』t like music,much less dancing.
--I don』t accuse you of falsehood,still less of dishonesty.(我不會控告你的虛偽,更不會控告你的欺詐。)
--He could not operate the machine,still less could he fix it. (Wang)
--I know nothing about him except that he lives next door. (Zhan)
--He』s working hard for fear (that) he should fail. (Oxf)
--We have no news save that the ship reached port safely.
注意 still less 是用於否定句之後,less是否定副詞little 的比較級。所以,still less 比句子前一部分的否定更進一步的深入。much less 和even less 與still less 意思相同。使用still less 時,如果后一部分是句子時,后一部分必須倒裝。使用still less 時,如果句子的前半部分沒有否定詞not,雖則是否定意義時,一般不用still less,而用still more。例如:
--Proof reading is uninteresting,still more so when it is one』s own work.
使用still less 短語時,要否定的句子成分必須和前面的句子成分相對稱,rather than短語用法也一樣(如例句所示)。rather than 短語可以表示主觀願望的抉擇,即「寧願……而不……」、「不是(或不應該是)這樣,而是(或應該是)那樣」。此時,句中多半有would,had等詞;rather than短語還可以反映客觀上的差異,即表示「與其說是……不如說是……」、「倒不如說」之意。
--save that 和 saving that 作「除了」解,這是比較文氣陳舊的用法,通常用except that和excepting that。
not的位置
(Position of not)
在英語中,否定副詞not可以出現在動詞(be)之後,或助動詞(do)之後,或情態動詞之後,
以對句子的謂語進行否定;也可以出現在句子中的某個成分(主語、主語補語、賓語、定語、
狀語、謂語的陳述詞等)之前,對名詞、代語、形容詞、副詞、不定式、分詞或主動詞等進行否
定;not所處的這些位置使否定句被劃分為二大類:即「一般否定句」 和「特指否定句」。下面就以這
種劃分闡明not的位置問題。
1 Not在「一般否定句」中的位置
一般來說,用否定副詞not否定謂語動詞,並通過否定謂語使全句受到否定的句子,叫做「一般否定句」。Not在「一般否定句」中有以下幾種位置:
a. not放在聯繫動詞之後
聯繫動詞有am,is,are,was,were這五種形式,not即放在這五個聯繫動詞之後。例如:
--China of today is not what it was twenty years ago.
注意:
1)在疑問句中,not與特殊動詞構成縮略式一起放在主語之前;或特殊動詞提到主語之前,not留存主語之後。例如:
--Isn』t that Teddy Thomson out?
--Is that Teddy Thomson not out?
不可以說:*Is not that Teddy Thomson out?
2)這五個形式有時也作助動詞。例如:
--We are not going to do it.
--Tom was not fooled by his friend.
3)在 there is,there are 表示存在的句型中,not否定副詞放在聯繫動詞(be)後面,there 在這裡是引導詞。not a 後面跟單數名詞,not any 跟複數名詞或不可數名詞。例如:
--There is not a moment to be lost. (分秒必爭)。
--There is not any water in the bottle.
b. 放在助動詞(do)之後,實義動詞之前。
如果句中只有行為動詞,在構成否定式時,就需在行為動詞的前面加do not (doesn』t),過去時一概用did not (didn』t)。例如:
--I don』t know why Mr. Cooper is so angry today.
--They did not steal so much.
--She does not have his letter. (她沒有收到他的信)
--I did not have breakfast this morning.
注意:
1)have 意為「有」、「具有」時,可以直接在其後加not,也可以藉助do(does,did)構成否定式。例如:
--They have not a swimming pool in their school. (英國英語)
--They do not have a swimming pool in their school. (美國英語)
Have意為「有」、「具有」以外的含義時,無論是美國英語還是英國英語,均藉助do(does,did),構成否定式。例如:
--He didn』t have a rest after lunch.
在完成時中,not放在have(has,had)之後。例如:
--They have not finished the work.
否定詞not有時直接放於行為動詞後面,而不藉助於助動詞。這是一種古舊的用法,現在多用於詩歌、諺語和比較莊重的文體中。例如:
--I know not why I am so sad.
--He,hearing this,knew not how to behave,nor how to answer her.
--We are fleet-winged men at arms; we fear not mountains or rivers deep.
有些虛擬語氣的從句,其謂語動詞的前面,沒有助動詞,只有副詞not。例如:
--The doctor suggested that my father not go to New York.
--It is important that he not give up hope because of difficulties in his work.
--It is requested that the delivery of goods not be delayed.
c. 放在情態動詞后。
情態動詞有:can,could,might,may,must,ought,need,dare,should等。例如:
--She won』t object.
--He wouldn』t stand that type of music.
--He dare not do it.
2 Not在「特指否定句」 中的位置
如前所述,not位於謂語動詞之前而否定謂語的就是「一般否定句」。英語里還有一種否定句,它不是否定謂語,而是就句子中某個成份(如主語、主語補語、定語、賓語、狀語、謂語內的陳述詞等)進行否定,它所否定的對象可以是名詞、代詞、形容詞、副詞、不定式、分詞、動名詞或主動詞等。這類否定非謂語成分的句子,就叫「否定句」。在「特指否定句「中,not用於否定非謂語成分主要基於這兩種情況:第一是不這樣安排not,就會改變句子意義;第二是用於含有對比的敘述中。not在「特指否定句」中的位置有以下幾種:
a. not位於主語之前。例如:
--Not a soul was anywhere visible.
--Not many of us wanted the war.
b. not 位於主語補語之前。
一般來說,not位於聯繫動詞之後,否定謂語動詞be,屬「一般否定句」。然而有時,雖然位於聯繫動詞之後,卻不是為了否定謂語動詞,而是否定主語補語,屬「特指否定句 」。例如:
--It』s not a cat,but a dog.
--His object is not to eat. (他的目的是不吃飯)
c. not位於賓語之前。例如:
--You must always remember not to become conceited. (自負)
--I can not risk not telling him.
--We felt sorry for not coming on time.
--The teacher told his students not to make such a mistake again. (否定複合賓語的第二部分)
注意:
在I think,I believe,I feel. I suppose,I expect 等引出的賓語從句中,英語習慣將從句中的否定詞not 放在主句中。這種句子形式上是否定主句謂語動詞的,實際上是否定賓語從句的。例如:
--I don』t think it』s right to make such a hasty decision.
--I don』t believe that he will come tomorrow.
--I didn』t expect you would do such a thing.
d. not位於定語之前。
--Not all the books are good.
--Not two native speakers of English speak it alike.
--Not every student can do the problem.
e. not位於狀語之前。例如:
--I went to see him off,not to meet him.
--They suffered not a little through the war.
--Not knowing his address,I did not write to him.
--Not surprisingly,he failed in the final exam.
注意:
否定狀語或狀語從句時,往往將否定詞提前移到謂語中去,其意義仍然是表示否定後面的部分。例如:
--He didn』t walk across the park. (not否定across the park)
--You can』t judge a thing only by its looks. (not 否定by its looks)
--He didn』t leave college because he was tired of learning. (not 否定原因狀語從句)
--I didn』t go because I was afraid. (not否定原因狀語從句)
此句中,顯然有兩個不同的意思:第一個意思是:「我沒有去因為我害怕」;第二個意思是:「我並非因為害怕而去」。第一義,not 否定謂語動詞,屬「一般否定句」;第二義,not否定非謂語成分,即原因狀語從句,屬「特指否定句」。此歧義可以在I didn't go 之後上標上一個表示停頓的逗號而得以消除。
--I didn』t go,because I was afraid.
此句中的not,否定謂語動詞go。
f. 謂語內的陳述詞否定。
通常not否定副詞位於情態動詞后時,對謂語動詞進行否定,屬「一般否定句」;然而有時,not位於情態動詞后時,卻是對謂語中的主動詞進行否定,屬「特指否定句」,但與一般的「特指否定句」又有不同的地方,因為它的否定範圍從謂語的主動詞開始直至延伸到幾個句子成分,並且有的句子還有不定代詞any。例如:
--They may not go swimming. (=They are allowed not to go swimming.) (他們可以不去游泳。)
這是一個肯定句,謂語一半否定,即否定主動詞go,情態動詞肯定。
--You could not attend any of the lectures. (=It』s possible for you not to attend any of the lectures.)
有時一個句子包含有兩種否定:即「一般否定」和「謂語內陳述詞否定」。例如:
--I can』t not obey the order. (= It is not possible for me not to obey the order.或I have to obey the order.)
--You can』t not admire her. (=It is not possible for you not to admire her.或You have to admire her.)
部分否定
(Partial negation)
部分否定是局部地或在一定程度上否定一個事物的成立、存在或真實性。在日常英語中,表示部分否定通常可以同以下四種方式表達:a. 用表示「部分」意思的some/sometimes等詞加上否定詞;b. 用否定詞not加上表示「較大數量」或「較大程度」的many/much等詞;c. 用否定詞not + 表示 「整體」、「全體」意思的all/entirely等詞;d. 否定詞與and連接的兩個並列詞語連用。
a. 用表示「部分」意思的some/sometimes等詞 + 否定詞。這種形式,可以表示部分否定的概念。例如:
--Some students are not right in answering the question.
--Sometimes you are not right.
b. 用否定詞not + many/much等詞。
部分否定也是對較大數量或較大程度的否定,因此可以用not + many / much / very much / some 來表示部分否定的概念。例如:
--There are not many books on the shelf.
--There is not much water left in the bottle.
--I don』t like classic very much.
--I don』t like some of his poems.
c. 用否定詞not + 表示「整體」、「全體」的意思的all/entirely等詞
部分否定是對全部肯定的否定,因此可以用not + all / every / both / always / fully / wholly / altogether / entirely / quite來表示部分否定的概念。例如:
--All is not gold that glitters. (是發光的並非都是黃金。)
--All the answers are not right. (答案並非全對。)
--I don』t know all of them. (對於他們我不是個個都認識。)
--Not all the students will be translators.
--Every one cannot make music. (不是所有的人都懂音樂。)
--Everybody wouldn』t like it. (並不是人人都喜歡它。)
--Not everything is attractive and interesting over there.
--Not everyone can play the violin.
--Not every man can do it.
--Both children are not clever. (兩個孩子並不都是聰明的。)
--I don』t like both of the novels. (這兩本小說我不是都喜歡。)
--Not both methods are practical.
--Such a thing is not found everywhere.
--A man of learning is not always a man of wisdom.
--We don』t wholly agree with him.
--This kind of person is never to be entirely trusted.
--Joanna was not altogether satisfied with the sailor.
--The new house is not quite what it should be.
d. 否定詞與and連接的兩個並列詞語連用
否定詞與and連接的兩個並列詞語連用時,有時只表示部分否定,即通常否定and後面的部分。例如:
--He did not speak clearly and correctly.(他不能講得清楚而正確。即:他講得清楚但不正確。)
--The lecture was not instructive and interesting.(講座頗有教育意義,但不生動。)
--I am sorry. But I simply cannot stay up night after night at parties and work the next morning. (對不起,我只是不能天天在晚會上熬夜,而第二天早上又得工作。)
注意:
1) 否定詞後用and連接兩個並列成分時,有時會出現兩種情況:要麼僅否定其中的一個並列成分(多為後者),要麼兩個並列成分雙雙受到否定(此時and的作用與or相同),這樣便會造成句子出現歧義。例如:
--He doesn』t have long hair and wear jeans. (他並非既蓄長發,又穿工作褲。或:他沒有蓄長發也沒有穿工作褲。)
不過這種歧義也可以通過上下文清除。又例如:
--You cannot eat your cake and have it. (諺語:魚和熊掌不能兼得。)只有一種含義:「事無雙全」。
2) 否定詞與由as well as連接的兩個並列結構連用時,否定詞只否定as well as之前的部分,而對 as well as後面的部分卻表示肯定。例如:
--I shall not go as well as you. (你去,但我不去。)
--Tom does not speak French as well as English. (湯姆說英語,但不說法語。)
概念闡釋
在人們的邏輯思維中,肯定與否定是兩個截然相反的概念。無論對講哪一種語言的人來說,這都是共同的。一般來說,不論敘述一件事情,提出一項要求,還是回答一個問題,不是用肯定語氣,就是用否定語氣來表達意思。句子的否定結構是語言中的一個很重要而且應用很廣泛的範疇,它是用來否認一個事實的成立、存在或真實性的。但是因語言而異,英語中表達這一概念的手段與方式卻比其他任何語法範疇要複雜得多。英語中否定句通常藉助否定詞no,not,never,nothing,nobody,none等,半否定詞hardly,scarcely,few,little等,以及否定詞綴構成。然而由於英語中有的詞語習慣上只能用於肯定句中,有些只能用於否定句中;還有些用於肯定句中的詞語,用於否定句中時卻只能用它們相對應的同根詞;還有些詞語,同樣是這個詞,在肯定句中同在否定句中意義不一樣;此外還有不少習慣上不合理的用法。這種形式與意義之間所出現的不協調的現象,雖然使枯燥的語言變得豐富多彩,絢麗多姿,卻同時也給學習者帶來了不少困難。因此對各種否定結構下番功夫,對於正確使用英語會有相當的幫助。

形式表達

對於一個寫成標準形式:量詞,若P則Q的命題的否定,先否定量詞,全稱轉換成存在,存在轉換成全稱呢個,然後再否定結論。條件不否定。例如,存在a,b,c<0,使得a^3+b^3+c^2>0的否定是任意a,b,c<0,a^3+b^3+c^2<=0
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相關評論

同義詞:暫無同義詞