標籤:實義動詞及物動詞不及物動詞

實義動詞與系動詞是相對的,系動詞亦稱連繫動詞(Link Verb),作為系動詞,它本身有詞義,但不能單獨用作謂語,後邊必須跟表語(亦稱補語),構成系表結構說明主語的狀況、性質、特徵等情況。實義動詞意思完全,能獨立用作謂語。實義動詞有及物動詞和不及物動詞(及物動詞是指後面要求有直接賓語的動詞;不及物動詞指後面不需要跟賓語的動詞) 即行為動詞,表示動作的動詞。它分為及物動詞和不及物動詞兩種

1簡介

及物動詞
後面必須跟賓語,意義才完整的實義動詞,叫做及物動詞(transitive verb)。
英語中的及物動詞有:interest,worry,guss,please,surprise,love等
例如:I believe that the committee will consider our suggestion.我相信委員會將會考慮我們的建議。
「How long can I keep the book 」Harry asked.哈里問:「這本書我可以借多久?」
Dr. Bethune set us a good example. 白求恩大夫給我們樹立了好榜樣。
Crude oil contains many useful substances.原油含有許多有用的物質。

不及物動詞

本身意義完整,後面不用跟賓語的實義動詞,叫做不及物動詞(intransitive verb)。Birds fly.鳥會飛。
It happened in June 1932.這件事發生於一九三二年六月。
My watch stopped.我的錶停了。
She spoke at the meeting yesterday evening. 她在昨天晚上的會上發了言。
3)兼作及物動詞和不及物動詞 英語里有不少實義動詞可以兼作及物動詞和不及物動詞。這樣的動詞又有兩種不同的情況:
a)兼作及物動詞和不及物動詞時,意義不變。試比較:
Shall I begin at once?我可以立刻開始嗎?(begin作不及物動詞)
She began working as a librarian after she left school.她畢業后當圖書館管理員。(began作及物動詞)
When did they leave Chicago?他們是什麼時候離開芝加哥的?(leave 作及物動詞)
They left last week. 他們是上周離開的。(left 作不及物動詞)
b)兼作及物動詞和不及物動詞時,有時意義不盡相同。如:
Wash your hands before meals.飯前要洗手。
Does this cloth wash well? 這布經得起洗嗎?
4) 與漢語的比較 有時英語動詞的及物和不及物的用法,與漢語的用法完全不一樣,請注意下列兩種情況:
a)有的動詞在英語里只能用作不及物動詞,而漢語則可用作及物動詞,如arrive到達,agree同意,listen聽。英語里這些動詞後面常接介詞。如:
We arrived at the railway station at noon.我們於中午到達火車站。(at不能省去)(比較:We reached the railway station at noon.)
Everybody listened to the lecture with great interest.每個人都很有興趣地聽講課。(to不可省去)(比較:We all heard the lecture.)
Do they agree to the plan?他們同意這個計劃嗎?(to不可以省去)
b)有的動詞在英語里能用作及物動詞,而在漢語里則不能用作及物動詞,如serve為…服務。
Our children are taught to serve the people wholeheartedly.我們的兒童被教以全心全意為人民服務

2用法

實義動詞詞義完整,能獨立作謂語,可分成:及物動詞(transitive verb)和不及物動詞(intransitive verb)。
1.及物動詞要求有賓語
①Mr.Smith gave his wife twenty pounds for her birthday.史密斯先生給了他的妻子20英鎊過生日。
②He asked the teacher a few questions.他向老師問了幾個問題。
③We have friends all over the world.我們的朋友遍天下。
④Children and young people like bright colors.孩子和年輕人喜歡亮麗的顏色。
2.不及物動詞不要求有賓語
① Most shops in Britain open at 9:00 A.m. and close at 5:00 or 5:30 in the evening .英國大部分商店九點開門,晚五點或五點半關門。
②George's father lives there.喬治的爸爸住在那裡。
③Let's go home.我們回家吧。
④The examination ended at 11:30 A.m.考試上午十一點半結束。
3.特殊實義動詞
英語動詞很多既是及物動詞又是不及物動詞,如
close, begin, study, leave, work等。
①The post office closes at 9:00 p. m.郵局晚上9點關門。
②Close the window,please.請關窗。
③Shall we begin now?我們現在開始嗎?
④ Bill began working as a sailor after he left school.比爾畢業后當水手。
⑤They left yesterday.他們昨天離開的。
⑥When did you leave Washington?你什麼時候離開華盛頓的?
⑦The students study hard.這些學生學習努力。
⑧The students study English and German.這些學生學習英語和德語。
⑨He works in a supermarket.他在一家超市工作。
⑩He works the machine on Mondays.他星期一操作這台機器。
3。實義動詞,也叫行為動詞。就我們現在所學的內容來講,實義動詞所在的句子中一般不存在be動詞。也就是在含有實義動詞的句子變否定句或疑問句時,一定不能用be動詞。那麼,實義動詞究竟怎樣用呢?正如be動詞隨著主語的變化可變為am、is、are一樣,實義動詞在肯定句中,也要隨著主語的變化而變化。當主語為第三人稱單數he,she,it時,實義動詞要變為相應的第三人稱單數;當主語為非第三人稱單數I,you(你),we,you(你們) they時,實義動詞要用動詞的原形。而在變否定句和疑問句時,不能直接在動詞上變,而是要藉助另一類動詞:助動詞do、does。
⑴肯定句:
① I have a blue book.
② He has a brother.
③ She wants to be a teacher.
④ They like to play basketball.
⑵否定句:主語+don』t/doesn』t+動詞原形。其中do/does為助動詞,是來幫助實義動詞構成否定或疑問句的,但加了do/does后,其後面的動詞必須用動詞原形。
① I have a blue book.(變為否定句)→I don』t have a blue book.
② He has a brother. (變為否定句)→He doesn』t have brother.
③ She wants to be a teacher. (變為否定句)→She doesn』t want to be a teacher.
④ They like to play basketball. (變為否定句)→They don』t like to play basketball.
⑶一般疑問句:Do/Does +主語+動詞原形+其他?句中加了do/does后,其後面的動詞還是必須用動詞原形。
① I have a blue book.(變為一般疑問句)→Do you have a blue book?
② He has a brother. (變為一般疑問句)→Does he have a brother?
③ My brother does his homework before supper. (變為一般疑問句)→Does your brother do his homework before supper?
④ She wants to be a teacher. (變為一般疑問句)→Does she want to be a teacher?
⑤ They like to play basketball. (變為一般疑問句)→Do they like to play basketball?
⑷特殊疑問句:特殊疑問詞+一般疑問句?
① Your sister likes English best because it』s interesting.(對加粗部分提問)
→Why does your sister like English best?
② He does his homework before supper. (對加粗部分提問)→When does he do his homework?
注意:當含有and引導的短語在句中做謂語或賓語,我們把這類句子變否定句時,必須把and變為or.如:
⑴He can swim and dance. (變為否定句)→He can』t swim or dance.
⑵My father likes English and math. (變為否定句) →My father doesn』t like English or math.
⑸ but和except后。but前是實義動詞do時,後面出現的不定式不帶to。
例如:He wants to do nothing but go out. 他只想出去玩。
比較:He wants to believe anything but to take the medicine. 除了吃這葯,他什麼都信。
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