最常用的岩石分類方案就是:
火成岩(岩漿岩)——顧名思義,就是直接由岩漿形成的岩石,指由地球深處的岩漿侵入地殼內或噴出地表后冷凝而形成的岩石。又可分為侵入岩和噴出岩(火山岩)。
沉積岩——顧名思義,就是由沉積作用形成的岩石,指暴露在地殼表層的岩石在地球發展過程中遭受各種外力的破壞,破壞產物在原地或者經過搬運沉積下來,再經過複雜的成岩作用而形成的岩石。沉積岩的分類比較複雜,一般可按沉積物質分為母岩風化沉積、火山碎屑沉積和生物遺體沉積。
變質岩——顧名思義,就是經歷過變質作用形成的岩石,指地殼中原有的岩石受構造運動、岩漿活動或地殼內熱流變化等內營力影響,使其礦物成分、結構構造發生不同程度的變化而形成的岩石。又可分為正變質岩和副變質岩。
三大類岩石是可以通過各種成岩作用相互轉化的,這也就形成了地殼物質的循環。
Rock type
How it was formed
Examples
Igneous
Formed from the hardening of molten rock, or magma, whick is called lava when it reaches the surface of the Earth.
Granite, pumice, basalt, obsidian
Sedimentary
Formed bu the sedimentation, or gradual depositing, of small bits of rock, clay, and other materials. over thime this deposited material becomes cemented together. most fossils are found in sedimentary rocks.
shale, sandstone, gypsum, dolomite, coal
Metamorphic
Formed when existing rock material is altered through temperature, pressure, or chemical processes.
marble, slate, gneiss, quartzite
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