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基本語法 強調句是一種修辭,是人們為了表達自己的意願或情感而使用的一種形式。

1基本定義

強調句

  強調句

強調句(The Emphatic Pattern)是一種修辭,是人們為了表達自己的意願或情感而使用的一種形式。通過各種方式對句子中的某個部分進行強調,從而起到修辭的作用。 英語常用的強調結構是"It is (was)+被強調部分(主語、賓語或狀語)+who (that)..."。一般說來,被強調部分指人時,用who;指事物時用that,但that也可以指人。在美國英語中指事物時常用which來代替that。

2常用句型

1. 陳述句的強調句型
It is/ was + 被強調部分(通常是主語、賓語或狀語)+ that/ who(當強調主語且主語指人)+ 其他部分。
例子 It was yesterday that he met Li Ping.
2. 一般疑問句的強調句型
同上,只是把is/ was提到it前面。
例子 Was it yesterday that he met Li Ping?
3. 特殊疑問句的強調句型
被強調部分(通常是疑問代詞或疑問副詞)+ is/ was + it + that/ who + 其他部分?
例子 When and where was it that you were born?
4.not … until … 句型的強調句
A. 句型為:It is/ was not until + 被強調部分 + that + 其他部分
普通句:He didn't go to bed until/ till his wife came back.
強調句:It was not until his wife came back that he went to bed.
B. 注意:
此句型只用until,不用till。但如果不是強調句型,till, until可通用;因為句型中It is/ was not ... 已經是否定句了,that後面的從句要用肯定句,切勿再用否定句了。
5.謂語動詞的強調
A. It is/ was ... that ... 結構不能強調謂語,如果需要強調謂語時,用助動詞do/ does或did
Do sit down. 務必請坐。
Do be careful when you cross the street. 過馬路時,務必(千萬)要小心啊!
B. 注意:
此種強調只用do/ does和did,沒有別的形式;過去時用did,後面的謂語動詞用原形。

3強調形式

常見到的強調形式,共有以下七類:
⒈用do\does\did + V可表強調
Some people do believe that nuclear power poses a threat to the world peace.
⒉adv或adj可表強調:Never \ only\ Very
This is the very question that deserves careful analysis.
⒊雙重否定可表強調
Taking part-time jobs is never without drawbacks.
⒋what引導的主從可表強調
What really matters is cooperation.
⒌倒裝可表強調(凡是倒裝都可以表示強調)
Little do people take into account the seriousness of this problem.
⒍比較狀語從句可表強調
Nothing is more imperative than to learn from the past.
⒎強調句型可表強調
It is \was +被強調部份+ that \ who +原句剩餘部份
It is stability that destroys people』s ambition and barricades people』s steps.

4語法結構

強調句的十種結構:
1.用助動詞「do(does/did)+動詞原形」來表示強調:   
Do write to me when you get there.你到那兒后務必給我來信。
2.用形容詞very,only,single,such等修飾名詞或形容詞來加強語氣:   
How dare you buy such expensive jewels?你怎麼敢買這麼貴的寶石呢?
3.用ever,never,very,just等副詞和badly,highly,really等帶有-l y的副詞來進行強調:
I really don』t know what to do next.我的確不知道下一步該怎麼做。
4.用in the world,on earth,at all等介詞短語可以表達更強的語氣(常用於疑問句):  
Where in the world could he be?他到底會在哪兒?  
5.用感嘆句來表示強烈的感情,突出說話人的情感:  
How interesting a story it is!這是一個多麼有趣的故事啊!   
6.用重複來表示強調:  
Why!why!The cage is empty!啊!啊!箱子是空的。  
7.用倒裝句(也就是將要強調的句子或被強調的部分置於句首)來加強語氣:  
On the table were some flowers.桌上擺著一些花。(強調地點)  
8.用強調句型:「It is(was)+被強調的部分+that(who)+原句其它部分」來強調說話人的意願:  
It was on Monday night that all this happened.所有這一切發生在周一晚上。  
9.用If來表示強調:  
1)If從句+I don』t know who/what,etc.does/is/has,etc.
主語部分也可以用nobody does/is/has,etc.或everybody does/is/has,et c.來代替(這裡的if從句往往是正話反說,反話正說):  
If he can』t do it,I don』t know who can.要是他做不了這件事,我不知道還有誰能做。(強調只有他能做)  If Jim is a coward,everybody is.要是吉姆是個膽小鬼,那麼人人都是膽小鬼。(強調吉姆不是膽小鬼)
2)if從句+it be主句(此用法可看成是第8中強調句型的變形,即把所要強調的內容放在it be的後面,把其它內容放在由if引導的從句中):  
If anyone knew the truth,it was Tom.如果說誰了解事實的真相,那便是湯姆。  
10.用破折號、黑體字也可以表示強調,加強語氣:  
It』s because of hard work—ten years of hard work.那是因為艱苦的工作--十年艱苦的工作!  
He began the work in late May.他在五月底開始的這項工作。(強調時間)

5注意事項

that后的強調句如果是原因狀語從句,從句只能用because引導,不能用since,as或why。
It was because the water had risen that they could not cross the river。

6句型練習

與定語從句的比較
◎強調句中的It沒有實際意義,It be與that可同時被省略;而定語從句中的It是主語,It be與that不可同時省略;
◎強調句型中be的時態須跟後面句子的時態相一致;而定語從句中主句謂語動詞be的時態須由主句的時間確定
◎強調句將句子中的that不能省略,並且即使前面的名詞是事物時,也不能將that換成which;而定語從句中的that作賓語時可被省略,並且當先行詞是事物時可用which代替。
◎當it be後面的時間、地點名詞作主語、賓語或表語時,引導詞可用that / which;而作其他成分時,引導詞須用when / which。如:
(1) It is an English book (that / which) I bought yesterday. 它是我昨天買的書。(本句是對What is that?問句的回答,that所引導的是定語從句,that可被省略)
It was the English book that I bought yesterday. 昨天我所賣的就是這本書。(本句相當於對I bought the English book yesterday中an English book進行強調)
(2) It was a room where we used to have meetings. 它是我們過去常在開會的房子。(where 所引導的從句對前面的room進行說明,它是定語從句)
It was in the room that we used to have meetings. 過去我們開會就在這間房子里。(in the room是被強調的部分,本句是強調句型)
(3) It is a day when the people celebrate their victory. 這是人們慶祝他們的勝利的日子。  (when所引導的從句對a day進行說明,是定語從句)
It was on that day that people celebrated their victory. 就在那一天,人們慶祝了他們的勝利。(強調on October 1, 1949)

與狀語從句的比較

◎狀語從句句首的It本身就是句子的主語;而強調句首的It不作任何成分也沒有實際意義。
◎狀語從句的連接副詞that及句子前面的It be不能去掉
◎狀語從句的引導詞可以是when / where,而強調句型中的that不能用其他詞代替。如:
(1) It is such an interesting book that we all like it very much. 它是一本如此有趣的書,我們大家都非常喜歡。(結果狀語主從複合句)
It is such an interesting book that we all like very much. 我們大家都非常喜歡的就是一本如此有趣的書。(強調such an interesting book)
(比較:It is such an interesting book as we all like very much. 這就是我們大家都非常喜歡的如此有趣的書。定語從句)
(2) It was already morning when he woke up. 當他醒來時,已經是早晨了。(時間主從複合句)
It was the next morning that he woke up. 就在第二天早晨他醒來了。(強調the next morning)

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