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替代,是一種避免重複、連接上下文的手段。被替代的詞語可以是名詞片語或其中心詞,這是名詞性替代(Nominal substitution);被替代的詞語可以是動詞片語或其中心詞,這是動詞性替代(Verbal substitution);被替代的詞語可以是整個分句,這是分句性替代(Clausal substitution);及其他替代方式。

1 替代 -名詞性替代

用於名詞性替代的詞語主要有one/ONES, that/those, the same, the kind, the sort, either, neither, 等。 

one, ones

a. one/ones可以指人或物
--Give Joan the red cup and take the blue one for yourself.
--I』m having a drink. Would you like one too ?
--There are good films as well as bad ones.
--A mortal blow is one that kills.
2)one/ones和它們所替代的名詞片語中心詞的「數」可以不一致;或在句法功能上也可能不一致。 例如:
--If you want to buy an electric heater, you may be interested in this one in the window.
--Compare the new edition with the old ones.
--Have you any books on farming ? I want to borrow one.
--Do you see those gentlemen over there ? The one with gray hair is my father.
3) one/ones 一般帶修飾語,它們和所替代的名詞中心詞所指不一定是同一對象,這是替代詞one/ones用法上的一個重要特徵。例如:
--She bought a cotton dress and a silk one.
--This chapter is much longer than the preceding ones.
--There are only hard chocolates left; we』ve eaten all the soft ones.
4) one/ones後面常跟有修飾語或形容詞從句。例如:
--Which poem ? The one they were talking about yesterday.
--My shoes are similar to the ones you had on yesterday.
--Compare this picture with the one painted by your brother.
--This room and the one upstairs are well furnished.
--This house built of bricks is more durable than the one over there made of wood.
b. one/ones 的省略
1)當this/those, that/those與one/ones連用,表達比較或選擇的含義時,one/ones可以省略。 例如:
--This chair is too low. I』ll sit in that (one).
--I like this (one) best.
但是,當this/those, that/those後跟有形容詞,此時的one/ones不可以省略。如:
--I like this blue one/these blue ones.
2)替代詞one/ones在形容詞比較級或最高級以及某些限定詞如this, which, 序數詞等後面可省略。例如:
--I can get you several very sharp ones, but this is the best (one) I have.
--Of all the boys in the class, John is the tallest (one).
--Here are all the pictures. Which (one, ones) do you like best ?
--Some of the answers were correct, but I don』t remember which (ones). 

that, those

a. that/those 總是伴隨著限制性的後置修飾語,分別等於the one 和the ones。that只能指物,those是複數替代形式,可以指人,也可指物。例如:
--The paintings of Gauguin』s Tahiti period are more famous than those he painted in France.
--The explorers wrote two very popular books: that on travels, and that on Arctic life.
--His last two books are a great success as compared with those he wrote earlier.
b. that 也可用於替代不可數名詞(但是the one則不能)。例如:
--The victim』s own blood was of a different blood group from that found on the floor.
--The best coal is that from Newcastle.
--His description didn』t answer to that of the thief.
--Our tea is of a better quality than that which the buyers imported from other origins.
註:that作為替代形式,它幾乎不與關係代詞that連用,但是,those that的結合是通用的。

the same, the kind, the sort

a. kind, sort通常替代不可數名詞。例如:
--American food is not the same as the English kind.
--Slang disappears quickly, especially the juvenile sort.
b. the same 的替代用法
1) the same可用作整個名詞片語的替代詞,通常指物,但與它所替代的名詞片語並非共指同一對象。例如:
--A: Can I have a cup of black coffee with sugar, please ?
--B: Give me the same, please.
--A: I』ll have two poached eggs on toast, please.
--B: I』ll have the same.
i)the same一般不可以再帶前置修飾語,但可以帶表示保留或條件的後置修飾語,例如:
--A: I』d like a cup of tea.
--B: I』d like the same with milk but without sugar.
--A: I』ll have two poached eggs on toast, please.
--B: I』ll have the same but fried.
--The society shall keep minutes of its proceedings, which shall be available for public inspection. From time to time it shall publish the same.
2) the same還可以替代用作補語,表示當前特性的形容詞短語、介詞短語或比較結構等。例如:
--Yesterday I felt under the weather, and today I feel the same
--The soup smells delicious, and the turkey smells the same.
--Charles is now an actor. Given half a chance I would have been the same. (the same = an actor)
--A: John sounded rather regretful.
--B: Yes, Mary sounded the same. (the same = rather regretful)
3)the same 的另一個作用是替代一個名詞性分句,尤其在say之後。例如:
--A: (I say) Oxford is likely to win the next boat race.
--B: I say the same. (= that Oxford is likely to win the next boat race, too)
--A: John thought it was impossible.
--B: Yes, I thought the same. (= that it was impossible)
註:在另一些搭配中the same 可表示上下文中的某個過程。例如:
--A: I lost my way in the galleries.
--B: The same happened to me. (= I also lost my way in the galleries.)
--A: That noise really unnerves me.
--B: Yes, it does the same to me too. (does the same = unnerves me).


--Many children learn to read quite quickly, but some (= some children) need special instruction.
--You told me there were three pictures by Van Gogh in the exhibition. But I didn』t see any (of his
--The boys applied for a scholarship. Each (of them) was able to present excellent references.
--If you run after two hares, you will catch neither.
--Either (of them) will be satisfactory.

2 替代 -動詞性替代



a. do的形式必須受主語人稱和數的制約,並且有現在時和過去時的形式變化。例如:
--She hoped that he would search the room carefully before her arrival but he didn』t do so.
--Martin drives a car, and his sister does, too.
--The door was falling to pieces. The windows were doing too. (doing =falling to pieces)
--A: The children work very hard in the garden.
--B: They must do. (do= work hard in the garden)
b. do so既可以替代動-賓謂語結構,也可以替代動-狀謂語結構;還可以採取非限定形式。例如:
--He said he would tell me the news, but he didn』t do so (= tell me the news.)
--A: Jane is crying for some more cake in the kitchen.
--B: Yes, but her little brother isn』t doing so (= crying for some more cake.)
--The boys played doctors and nurses. We watched them doing that (= playing doctors and nurses), but they wanted us to do so (= to play doctors and nurses), too.
--As no one else has succeeded in doing so, I shall attempt to solve the mystery myself. (= solving the mystery)
c. do so與do the same, do it, do that交替使用。
1) 有時,do so 與do the same可以交替使用。例如:
--Mother cleaned the room and I did the same. (= …and I did so, too.)
--He began to write science articles for the newspaper and told me to do the same (= …and told me to do so, too.)
2) 當do so替代動賓結構時,it或this/that可以取代so。不過,it系指具體事物,that/this則口氣 較重。例如:
--John is going to make the experiment and he wanted me to do it, too.
--They played cards after dinner and we wanted them to do that.
3) 當do so, do that, do it, do the same 等用於疑問句、否定句,或用於強調口氣時,它們可以與助動詞(包括助動詞do)配合使用。例如:
--A: Do they go to work by train ?
--B: Yes, but we don』t do so.
--A: Mary is paying for her own ticket.
--B: Yes, but Joan isn』t doing that/isn』t doing the same/isn』t doing so.
d. do 與so用在一起,構成兩個句型:「so + do + 主語」和「so + 主語 + do」。這兩個句型常用於簡短回答。
1) 在「so + do + 主語」句型當中,so的意義相當於in the same way; 作簡短回答表示同樣看法時常用。例如:
--My brother caught a cold, and so did my sister. (= My sister caught a cold, too.)
--They play cards after dinner, and so do we. (= We also play cards after dinner.)
--A: Moths fly about at night.
--B: So do bats. (= Bats fly about at night, too.)
2) 在「so + 主語 + do」句型當中,so的意義相當於indeed, certainly;對別人的話作出肯定反應時常用。例如:
--A: The students work hard.
--B: So they do. (= Certainly they work hard.)
--A: He looks very pale.
--B: So he does. (= He looks very pale indeed.)
--A: Father, you promised.
--B: Well, so I did! (= Certainly I promised.)


--The production increases as it has done (= increased) for the last few Years.
--She plays the piano better than she does (= plays) the guitar.
--A: Mary studies modern history and doesn』t do (= study) modern languages.
--B: Does she do (= study) ancient history, too ?
i) 動詞性替代在口語中比在書面語中用得多,在英國英語中比在美國英語中用得多。
ii) doing so的組合可倒置為so doing。如:
--Roberts was rounding up the cattle. When asked why he was so doing, he replied: 「Orders are orders.」
iii) 在帶to的不定式結構中,do和so可以倒置(少見,屬於正式語體)。如:
--To do so (= So to do) is to betray the confidence of their readers.
--Prices at present are reasonably stable, and will probably remain so.
--If he』s a criminal, it』s his parents who have made him so.
v) 還有too much so, so much so, more so和less so的替代形式。如:
--Although the poor girl was exhausted, she was less so than we feared.
--The weather was hot in Cairo---so much so, that we stayed indoors all day.

3 替代 -分句性替代

a. 在believe, expect, suppose, think, guess, imagine, reckon, suspect, presume 和it appears/ seems之後,既可以用so也可以用not來替代that-從句。
1) so替代肯定從句。例如:
--A: Oxford is likely to win the next boat race.
--B: All my friends say so.
--A: Many people believe that the international situation will deteriorate.
--B: My father thinks so, but I believe not.
--A: Will Tom be at the party ?
--B: I expect so/ suppose so/ think so./ I think he will.
2) 這裡的否定式有兩種:一是動詞的否定式 + so構成;一是動詞的肯定式 + not構成。例如:
--A: Will the scheme be a success ?
--B: I don』t believe so/ expect so/ suppose so/ think so.
--A: Are they making good progress ?
--B: It doesn』t seem so.
--A: It won』t take long, will it?
--B: No, I suppose not. / I don』t suppose so.
i) so和not一般不能用於諸如agree, know, (be) sure等詞之後。例如,不可以說*I』m sure so.//
*I doubt so.// *I know so.// *Why do you ask so ?// *He said not.// *He told me not.
ii) So it appears 和So it seems很常見。
b. hope和be afraid (= be sorry to say)之後能用so或not。例如:
--A: Has the news reached home yet ?
--B: I』m afraid so./ I』m afraid not.
--A: Is Peter coming with us ?
--B: I hope so.
但是,這裡的否定式是動詞的肯定式 + not構成。例如:
--A: Have you got a work permit ?
--B: I』m afraid not.
--A: Will it rain tomorrow ?
--B: I hope not.
c. say和tell + 賓語之後能用so和not。例如:
--A: Jack hasn』t found a job yet.
--B: He told me so yesterday.
--A: John is leaving next week.
--B: So I』ve been told.」
--A: How do you know there is going to be a demonstration ?
--B: Jack said so. / Jack told me so.
至於tell的否定形式,只有否定式 + so這一種結構。例如:
--Tom didn』t tell me so.
--Tom didn』t say so. (= Tom didn』t say that there would be a demonstration.)
--Tom said not. (= Tom said there wouldn』t be a demonstration.)
d. if + so/not通常代表一個條件從句。例如:
--If so, I had quite misjudged him.
--Will you be staying another night ? If so (= If you are), we can give you a better room. If not
(= If you aren』t), could you be out of your room by 12:00 ?
--A: I hope Bill won』t come.
--B: If so(= If you hope he won』t come), why did you invite him ?
e. so替代分句時偶爾也出現在句首,主語倒裝與否均可。例如:
--A: Oxford will win the boat race; at least, so all my Oxford friends say.
--B: And so say most of the sports writers, too.
--So most of the sports writers say, too.
--A: Most people are backing the Oxford crew.
--B: So I believe; but that doesn』t mean they』ll win.

4 替代 -替代 單機遊戲


  遊戲名稱:替代   英文名稱:Alternativa   製作廠商:Centauri Production   遊戲發行:IDEA Games, Bohemia Interactive   遊戲語種:中文漢化   遊戲類型:Point & Click Adventure   遊戲版本:完整硬碟版


  這是一款有著科幻復古風格的傳統點擊式冒險解密遊戲,在遊戲里,玩家可以看到當代與未來元素相結合的遊戲世界(可以參照電影《第五元素》)。配合遊戲使用的是CPAL3D引擎,呈現給玩家一個風格獨特的世界。只是不同於一般的敘事方式,在這款遊戲中,採用的是多線性的敘述方式,故事情節跌宕起伏,並且處處都可以感受到遊戲里毛骨悚然的氣氛。推理元素、充滿歷史感和科幻情節的遊戲會讓玩家大呼過癮。   遊戲中,玩家可以通過故事逐漸了解這個叫Alterniva的世界。它的歷史、社會環境、人們的生活狀況。同樣,如果玩家玩遊戲的時候夠仔細,會發現諸如此類的細節。主角可以見識到其他被戰爭毀壞的地區,然而新的問題同樣會接踵而至。   遊戲里的單一故事並不長,而是藉助多個短篇故事通過各方面來集中描述。大量的故事中,玩家會看到當時人們的生活狀況和其中存在的各種問題。這樣的故事比如強姦案的調查、夜行停屍房、黑客攻擊資料庫等內容會讓玩家們興奮不已。

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