標籤:化工化工原料化工產品化工製造網

氯化鋰,無機化合物,無色立方晶體,具有潮解性。 味咸。易溶於水,乙醇、丙酮、吡啶等有機溶劑。屬低毒類。對眼睛和粘膜具有強烈的刺激和腐蝕作用。氯化鋰主要用於空氣調節領域,用作助焊劑、乾燥劑、化學試劑,並用於制焰火、乾電池和金屬鋰等。

1基本信息

中文名稱:氯化鋰
中文別名:氯化鋰(無水);氯化鋰(結晶)
英文名稱:Lithium chloride
英文別名:Lithium chloride anhydrous; Lithium Ion standard solution Fluka; Lithium chloride solution; Lithium chloride, Molecular Biology Grade; Lithium Chloride, MB Grade (1.05673)
俄語名稱:Хлорид лития
CAS:7447-41-8
EINECS:231-212-3
分子式:ClLi
分子量:42.394

2理化性質

化學性質
水溶液呈中性或微鹼性。電解無水氯化鋰可生成金屬鋰和氯氣。

3作用與用途

製取金屬鋰的原料。電解製取金屬時的助熔劑(如鈦和鋁的生產),用作鋁的焊接劑、空調除濕劑以及特種水泥原料,還用於火焰,在電池行業中用於生產鋰錳電池電解液等。

4使用注意事項

急救措施
皮膚接觸:立即脫去污染的衣著,用大量流動清水沖洗。就醫。
眼睛接觸:提起眼瞼,用流動清水或生理鹽水沖洗。就醫。
吸入:迅速脫離現場至空氣新鮮處。保持呼吸道通暢。如呼吸困難,給輸氧。如呼吸停止,立即進行人工呼吸。就醫。
食入:飲足量溫水,催吐。就醫。
泄漏應急處理
應急處理:隔離泄漏污染區,限制出入。建議應急處理人員戴防塵口罩,穿防酸鹼工作服。不要直接接觸泄漏物。
小量泄漏:避免揚塵,小心掃起,置於袋中轉移至安全場所。
大量泄漏:收集回收或運至廢物處理場所處置。

操作處置與儲存

操作注意事項:密閉操作,提供充分的局部排風。防止粉塵釋放到車間空氣中。操作人員必須經過專門培訓,嚴格遵守操作規程。建議操作人員佩戴防塵面具(全面罩),穿膠布防毒衣,戴橡膠手套。避免產生粉塵。避免與氧化劑、酸類接觸。配備泄漏應急處理設備。倒空的容器可能殘留有害物。
儲存注意事項:儲存於陰涼、通風的庫房。遠離火種、熱源。防止陽光直射。包裝密封。應與氧化劑、酸類分開存放,切忌混儲。儲區應備有合適的材料收容泄漏物。

5製備

蒸發LiCl水溶液可得LiCl·H2O結晶,高於98℃可得無水鹽,但加熱至結晶水脫盡前即同時水解失去部分HCl,而使產物呈鹼性。純無水LiCl(水溶液的pH=6~7)需要用減壓脫水,與NH4Cl共熱,在乾燥HCl氣流中加熱至200℃或無氧條件下用純氮噴霧乾燥製得。LiCl·H2O或無水鹽在空氣中均極易吸濕而至水滴狀。無水LiCl主要用於電解製備金屬鋰、鋁的焊劑和釺劑及非冷凍型空調機中的吸濕(脫濕)劑。工業上主要由鋰雲母、鋰輝石以及提取NaCl、KCl后的鹽滷水中提取。通常使用的是由Li2CO3或LiOH與鹽酸作用製得。一些試劑廠生產的無水LiCl往往是在蒸發LiCl水溶液至100-110℃時熱濾而得的塊狀體,其含水量在3%-5%。

6物質毒性

編號
毒性類型
測試方法
測試對象
使用劑量
毒性作用
1
acute
Oral
Human
200 mg/kg/3D
1.行為毒性Behavioral - somnolence (general depressed activity)
2.行為毒性Behavioral - muscle weakness
3.行為毒性Behavioral - muscle contraction or spasticity
2
acute
Oral
Human
243 mg/kg/13D
1.行為毒性Behavioral - somnolence (general depressed activity)
2.行為毒性Behavioral - tremor
3.胃腸道毒性Gastrointestinal - nausea or vomiting
3
acute
Oral
Rodent - rat
526 mg/kg
1.Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
4
acute
Intraperitoneal
Rodent - rat
514 mg/kg
1.Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
5
acute
Subcutaneous
Rodent - rat
499 mg/kg
1.Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
6
acute
Intracerebral
Rodent - rat
4800 ug/kg
1.行為毒性Behavioral - altered sleep time (including change in righting reflex)
2.行為毒性Behavioral - somnolence (general depressed activity)
3.營養和代謝系統毒性Nutritionaland Gross Metabolic - body temperature decrease
7
acute
Intratracheal
Rodent - rat
205 mg/kg
1.Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
8
acute
Oral
Rodent - mouse
1165 mg/kg
1.Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
9
acute
Intraperitoneal
Rodent - mouse
600 mg/kg
1.營養和代謝系統毒性Nutritionaland Gross Metabolic - body temperature decrease
10
acute
Subcutaneous
Rodent - mouse
738 mg/kg
1.行為毒性Behavioral - tremor
2.骨骼肌毒性Musculoskeletal - other changes
11
acute
Intravenous
Rodent - mouse
363 mg/kg
1.大腦毒性Brain and Coverings - recordings from specific areas of CNS
2.行為毒性Behavioral - antipsychotic
12
acute
Intracerebral
Rodent - mouse
14040 ug/kg
1.眼毒性Sense Organs and Special Senses (Eye) - ptosis
2.行為毒性Behavioral - somnolence (general depressed activity)
13
acute
Intravenous
Mammal - dog
500 mg/kg
1.行為毒性Behavioral - food intake (animal)
2.胃腸道毒性Gastrointestinal - changes in structure or function of salivary glands
3.骨骼肌毒性Musculoskeletal - other changes
14
acute
Intraperitoneal
Mammal - cat
492 mg/kg
1.Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
15
acute
Subcutaneous
Mammal - cat
450 mg/kg
1.Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
16
acute
Oral
Rodent - rabbit
800 mg/kg
1.Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
17
acute
Subcutaneous
Rodent - rabbit
531 mg/kg
1.Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
18
acute
Intraperitoneal
Rodent - guinea pig
624 mg/kg
1.Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
19
acute
Subcutaneous
Rodent - guinea pig
620 mg/kg
1.Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
20
acute
Subcutaneous
Bird - pigeon
513 mg/kg
1.Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
21
acute
Oral
Bird - quail
422 mg/kg
1.Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
22
acute
Subcutaneous
Amphibian - frog
885 mg/kg
1.Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
23
acute
Oral
Bird - wild bird species
422 mg/kg
1.Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethal dose value
24
MutipleDose
Oral
Rodent - rat
2849 mg/kg/4W-C
1.行為毒性Behavioral - fluid intake
2.腎、輸尿管和膀胱毒性Kidney, Ureter, Bladder - urine volume increased
3.腎、輸尿管和膀胱毒性Kidney,Ureter, Bladder - other changes
25
MutipleDose
Oral
Rodent - rat
712 mg/kg/1W-C
1.行為毒性Behavioral - fluid intake
2.營養和代謝系統毒性Nutritional and Gross Metabolic - weight loss or decreased weight gain
26
MutipleDose
Oral
Rodent - rat
6499 mg/kg/5W-C
1.腎、輸尿管和膀胱毒性Kidney, Ureter, Bladder - urine volume increased
2.血液毒性Blood - changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)
3.營養和代謝系統毒性Nutritional and Gross Metabolic - changes in sodium
27
MutipleDose
Intraperitoneal
Rodent - rat
500 mg/kg/10D-I
1.肝毒性Liver - changes in liver weight
2.腎、輸尿管和膀胱毒性Kidney, Ureter, Bladder - urine volume increased
3.內分泌毒性Endocrine - changes in spleen weight
28
MutipleDose
Subcutaneous
Rodent - rat
678 mg/kg/8D-I
1.行為毒性Behavioral - fluid intake
2.腎、輸尿管和膀胱毒性Kidney, Ureter, Bladder - urine volume increased
3.腎、輸尿管和膀胱毒性Kidney,Ureter, Bladder - other changesin urinecomposition
29
MutipleDose
Subcutaneous
Rodent - mouse
5440 mg/kg/17D-I
1.腎、輸尿管和膀胱毒性Kidney,Ureter, Bladder - other changesin urinecomposition
2.營養和代謝系統毒性Nutritional and Gross Metabolic - weight loss or decreased weight gain
3.慢性病相關毒性Related to Chronic Data - death
30
MutipleDose
Oral
Mammal - dog
4200 mg/kg/42D-I
1.行為毒性Behavioral - coma
2.營養和代謝系統毒性Nutritional and Gross Metabolic - weight loss or decreased weight gain
3.慢性病相關毒性Related to Chronic Data - death
31
MutipleDose
Oral
Mammal - species unspecified
1638 ug/kg/26W-I
1.心臟毒性Cardiac - pulse rate increase, without fall in BP
2.肝毒性Liver - liver function tests impaired
3.血液毒性Blood - changes in erythrocyte (RBC) count
32
MutipleDose
Inhalation
Mammal - species unspecified
14 mg/m3/17W-I
1.大腦毒性Brain and Coverings - other degenerative changes
2.嗅覺毒性Sense Organs and Special Senses (Olfaction) - effect, not otherwise specified
3.營養和代謝系統毒性Nutritional and Gross Metabolic - weight loss or decreased weight gain
33
SkinEyeIrrition
Administration onto the skin
Rodent - rabbit
500 mg/24H
1.Severe
34
SkinEyeIrrition
Administration into the eye
Rodent - rabbit
100 mg/24H
1.Moderate
35
Mutation

Yeast - Saccharomyces cerevisiae
9 mmol/L

36
Mutation

Yeast - Saccharomyces cerevisiae
3 mmol/L

37
Mutation

Human Lymphocyte
50 mg/L

38
Mutation

Human HeLa cell
70 mmol/L

39
Mutation

Human Lymphocyte
50 mg/L

40
Mutation
Oral
Rodent - mouse
212 ug/kg/3D (Intermittent)

41
Mutation
Oral
Rodent - mouse
21 mg/kg/3D (Intermittent)

42
Tumorigenic
Intraperitoneal
Rodent - mouse
882 mg/kg/7D-I
1.致癌性Tumorigenic - neoplastic by RTECS criteria
2.血液毒性Blood - lymphoma, including Hodgkin's disease
43
Reproductive
Intraperitoneal
Rodent - rat
41360 mg/kg,male 1 day(s) pre-mating
1.生殖毒性Reproductive - Fertility -mating performance (e.g. # sperm positive females per # females mated; # copulations per # estrus cycles)
44
Reproductive
Intraperitoneal
Rodent - rat
809 mg/kg,female 9-16 day(s) after conception
1.生殖毒性Reproductive - Specific Developmental Abnormalities -eye/ear
2.生殖毒性Reproductive - Specific Developmental Abnormalities -craniofacial (including nose andtongue)
3.生殖毒性Reproductive - Effects on Embryo or Fetus -other effects to embryo
45
Reproductive
Intraperitoneal
Rodent - rat
979 mg/kg,female 7-16 day(s) after conception
1.生殖毒性Reproductive - Fertility -post-implantation mortality (e.g. dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)
46
Reproductive
Intraperitoneal
Rodent - rat
1 mg/kg,female 7-11 day(s) after conception
1.生殖毒性Reproductive - Fertility -abortion
2.生殖毒性Reproductive - Effects on Embryo or Fetus -fetal death
47
Reproductive
Intraperitoneal
Rodent - rat
1250 mg/kg,female 7-11 day(s) after conception
1.生殖毒性Reproductive - Fertility -litter size (e.g. # fetuses per litter; measured before birth)
48
Reproductive
Subcutaneous
Rodent - rat
28 mg/kg,male 14 day(s) pre-mating
1.生殖毒性Reproductive - Paternal Effects -other effects on male
2.內分泌毒性Endocrine - changes in luteinizing hormone
3.內分泌毒性Endocrine - androgenic
49
Reproductive
Subcutaneous
Rodent - rat
42 mg/kg,male 21 day(s) pre-mating
1.生殖毒性Reproductive - Paternal Effects -spermatogenesis (incl. genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)
50
Reproductive
Oral
Rodent - mouse
66 mg/kg,female 1-21 day(s) after conception
1.生殖毒性Reproductive - Specific Developmental Abnormalities -Central Nervous System
2.生殖毒性Reproductive - Effects on Newborn - biochemical and metabolic
3.生殖毒性Reproductive - Effects on Newborn - physical
51
Reproductive
Oral
Rodent - mouse
475 mg/kg,male 7 day(s) pre-mating
1.生殖毒性Reproductive - Effects on Newborn -growth statistics (e.g.%, reduced weight gain)
2.生殖毒性Reproductive - Effects on Newborn - biochemical and metabolic
3.生殖毒性Reproductive - Effects on Newborn - physical
52
Reproductive
Intraperitoneal
Rodent - mouse
320 mg/kg,female 6-7 day(s) after conception
1.生殖毒性Reproductive - Effects on Newborn -other neonatal measures or effects
53
Reproductive
Subcutaneous
Rodent - mouse
1240 mg/kg,female 12-13 day(s) after conception
1.生殖毒性Reproductive - Specific Developmental Abnormalities -craniofacial (including nose andtongue)
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