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基督教早期著作。約成書於公元2世紀。其觀點曾被古羅馬高盧地區 Lugdunum 主教 Irenaeus,在公元180年前後寫成的《反異端》(Against Heresies)中指責為異教觀點。後失傳。內容久不為人所知。 20世紀70年代,其抄本在埃及 El Minya 省附近的沙漠中出土。經輾轉流傳,於2001年被送到瑞士 Maecenas 古代藝術基金會進行整理、翻譯。之後移交埃及開羅科普特博物館。

1書籍簡介

基督教早期著作,源自西元三或四世紀。其觀點曾被古羅馬高盧地區Lugdunum主教Irenaeus,在公元180年前後寫成的《反異端》(Against Heresies)中指責為異教觀點。后失傳。內容久不為人所知。
猶大福音

  猶大福音

該抄本凡26頁(Codex Tchacos, p.33-58),用古埃及科普特文(Coptic)於公元3-4世紀抄寫在13張莎草紙(papyrus)上,與《猶大福音》同時被發現的還有標題為《雅各布》(James)的文稿(又名《雅各布啟示錄》)、《彼得致腓力書信》(The Letter of Peter to Philip)以及學者暫稱為《阿羅基耐書》(Book of Allogenes)的片段合訂在一本皮革封面的書內。文稿年代可回溯至公元三世紀或四世紀,而這份手稿可能是根據公元150年左右一份希臘文原稿所抄寫的。
書中記錄了耶穌(Jesus)與其門徒猶大('Ioúdas' Iskariótes,Judas Iscariot)在逾越節前3日的一次秘密談話內容。談話中,耶穌將「其他門徒所不知道的秘密」──真正的天國之謎,告訴了猶大,並讓猶大幫助他重歸天國。書中引用耶穌對猶大的話:「你將超過他們所有人(耶穌其他門徒)」,但同時承認,猶大將因此世代受到詛咒。
《猶大福音》對於耶穌和門徒猶大之間的關係提出了一個與兩千年來傳統的基督宗教福音書完全不同的觀點,並對這位背叛耶穌的門徒有新的描繪。長久以來,基督教界一直通過閱讀新約《馬太福音》、《馬可福音》、《路加福音》與《約翰福音》視猶大為叛徒,但《猶大福音》卻顛覆這種觀點,猶大其實是耶穌最親密的朋友、最忠實的門徒,他之所以出賣耶穌,完全是出於耶穌授意,將耶穌交給當權者處置。為的是要完成上帝的救贖計劃。
學者們認為,《猶大福音》屬於盛行於公元2-3世紀的「諾斯底派(Gnostic)」的著作。它的發現表明了早期基督教教義的多樣性。

2英文譯本

Translated by Rodolphe Kasser,Marvin Meyer,and Gregor Wurst
猶大福音

  猶大福音

魯道夫·凱瑟,馬爾文梅爾,和沃斯特/[英]譯
in collaboration with Francois Gaudard
Published in book form complete with commentary by The National Geographic Society.
美國國家地理雜誌社出版全書與評註
Copyright (c) 2006 by The National Geographic Society.
All rights reserved. No part of this translation may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means,electronic or mechanical,including photocopying,without permission in writing from the National Geographic Society.
The secret account of the revelation that Jesus spoke in conversation with Judas Iscariot during a week three days before he celebrated Passover.
When Jesus appeared on earth,he performed miracles and great wonders for the salvation of humanity. And since some [walked] in the way of righteousness while others walked in their transgressions,the twelve disciples were called.
He began to speak with them about the mysteries beyond the world and what would take place at the end. Often he did not appear to his disciples as himself,but he was found among them as a child.
One day he was with his disciples in Judea,and he found them gathered together and seated in pious observance. When he [approached] his disciples,[34] gathered together and seated and offering a prayer of thanksgiving over the bread,[he] laughed.
The disciples said to [him],"Master,why are you laughing at [our] prayer of thanksgiving? We have done what is right."
He answered and said to them,"I am not laughing at you. <You> are not doing this because of your own will but because it is through this that your god [will be] praised."
They said,"Master,you are […] the son of our god."
Jesus said to them,"How do you know me? Truly say to you,no generation of the people that are among you will know me."
When his disciples heard this,they started getting angry and infuriated and began blaspheming against him in their hearts.
When Jesus observed their lack of [understanding,he said] to them,"Why has this agitation led you to anger? Your god who is within you and […] [35] have provoked you to anger [within] your souls. [Let] any one of you who is [strong enough] among human beings bring out the perfect human and stand before my face."
They all said,"We have the strength."
But their spirits did not dare to stand before [him],except for Judas Iscariot. He was able to stand before him,but he could not look him in the eyes,and he turned his face away.
Judas [said] to him,"I know who you are and where you have come from. You are from the immortal realm of Barbelo. And I am not worthy to utter the name of the one who has sent you."
Knowing that Judas was reflecting upon something that was exalted,Jesus said to him,"Step away from the others and I shall tell you the mysteries of the kingdom. It is possible for you to reach it,but you will grieve a great deal. [36] For someone else will replace you,in order that the twelve [disciples] may again come to completion with their god."
Judas said to him,"When will you tell me these things,and [when] will the great day of light dawn for the generation?"
But when he said this,Jesus left him.
The next morning,after this happened,Jesus [appeared] to his disciples again.
They said to him,"Master,where did you go and what did you do when you left us?"
Jesus said to them,"I went to another great and holy generation."
猶大福音

  猶大福音

His disciples said to him,"Lord,what is the great generation that is superior to us and holier than us,that is not now in these realms?"
When Jesus heard this,he laughed and said to them,"Why are you thinking in your hearts about the strong and holy generation? [37] Truly say to you,no one born [of] this aeon will see that [generation],and no host of angels of the stars will rule over that generation,and no person of mortal birth can associate with it,because that generation does not come from […] which has become […]. The generation of people among [you] is from the generation of humanity […] power,which [… the] other powers […] by [which] you rule."
When [his] disciples heard this,they each were troubled in spirit. They could not say a word.
Another day Jesus came up to [them]. They said to [him],"Master,we have seen you in a [vision],for we have had great [dreams …] night […]."
[He said],"Why have [you … when] <you> have gone into hiding?"[38]
They [said,"We have seen] a great [house with a large] altar [in it,and] twelve men----they are the priests,we would say----and a name; and a crowd of people is waiting at that altar,[until] the priests [… and receive] the offerings. [But] we kept waiting."
[Jesus said],"What are [the priests] like?"
They [said,"Some …] two weeks; [some] sacrifice their own children,others their wives,in praise [and] humility with each other; some sleep with men; some are involved in [slaughter]; some commit a multitude of sins and deeds of lawlessness. And the men who stand [before] the altar invoke your [name],[39] and in all the deeds of their deficiency,the sacrifices are brought to completion […]."
After they said this,they were quiet,for they were troubled.
Jesus said to them,"Why are you troubled? Truly I say to you,all the priests who stand before that altar invoke my name. Again I say to you,my name has been written on this […] of the generations of the stars through the human generations. [And they] have planted trees without fruit,in my name,in a shameful manner."
Jesus said to them,"Those you have seen receiving the offerings at the altar----that is who you are. That is the god you serve,and you are those twelve men you have seen. The cattle you have seen brought for sacrifice are the many people you lead astray [40] before that altar. […] will stand and make use of my name in this way,and generations of the pious will remain loyal to him. After hi another man will stand there from [the fornicators],and another [will] stand there from the slayers of children,and another from those who sleep with men,and those who abstain,and the rest of the people of pollution and lawlessness and error,and those who say,'We are like angels'; they are the stars that bring everything to its conclusion. For to the human generations it has been said,'Look,God has received your sacrifice from the hands of a priest'----that is,a minister of error.
But it is the Lord,the Lord of the universe,who commands,'On the last day they will be put to shame.'" [41]
Jesus said [to them],"Stop sac[rificing …] which you have […] over the altar,since they are over your stars and your angels and have already come to their conclusion there. So let them be [ensnared] before you,and let them go [----about 15 lines missing----] generations […]. A baker cannot feed all creation [42] under [heaven]. And […] to them […] and […] to us and […].
Jesus said to them,"Stop struggling with me. Each of you has his own star,and every[body----about 17 lines missing----] [43] in […] who has come [… spring] for the tree […] of this aeon […] for a time […] but he has come to water God's paradise,and the [generation] that will last,because [he] will not defile the [walk of life of] that generation,but […] for all eternity."
Judas said to [him,"Rabb]i,what kind of fruit does this generation produce?"
Jesus said,"The souls of every human generation will die. When these people,however,have completed the time of the kingdom and the spirit leaves them,their bodies will die but their souls will be alive,and they will be taken up."
Judas said,"And what will the rest of the human generations do?"
Jesus said,"It is impossible [44] to sow seed on [rock] and harvest its fruit. [This] is also the way […] the [defiled] generation […] and corruptible Sophia […] the handthat has created mortal people,so that their souls go up to the eternal realms above. [Truly] I say to you,[…] angel […] power will be able to see that […] these to whom […] holy generations […]."
After Jesus said this,he departed.
Judas said,"Master,as you have listened to all of them,now also listen to me. For I have seen a great vision."
When Jesus heard this,he laughed and said to him,"You thirteenth spirit,why do you try so hard? But speak up,and I shall bear with you."
Judas said to him,"In the vision I saw myself as the twelve disciples were stoning me and [45] persecuting [me severely]. And I also came to the place where […] after you. I saw [a house …],and my eyes could not [comprehend] its size. Great people were surrounding it,and that house <had> a roof of greenery,and in the middle of the house was [a crowd----two lines missing----],saying,'Master,take me in along with these people.'"
[Jesus] answered and said,"Judas,your star has led you astray." He continued,"No person of mortal birth is worthy to enter the house you have seen,for that place is reserved for the holy. Neither the sun nor the moon will rule there,nor the day,but the holy will abide there always,in the eternal realm with the holy angels. Look,I have explained to you the mysteries of the kingdom [46] and I have taught you about the error of the stars; and […] send it […] on the twelve aeons."
Judas said,"Master,could it be that my seed is under the control of the rulers?"
Jesus answered and said to him,"Come,that I [----two lines missing----],but that you will grieve much when you see the kingdom and all its generation."
When he heard this,Judas said to him,"What good is it that I have received it? For you have set me apart for that generation."
Jesus answered and said,"You will become the thirteenth,and you will be cursed by the other generations----and you will come to rule over them. In the last days they will curse your ascent [47] to the holy [generation]."
Jesus said,"[Come],that I may teach you about [secrets] no person [has] ever seen. For there exists a great and boundless realm,whose extent no generation of angels has seen,[in which] there is [a] great invisible [Spirit],which no eye of an angel has ever seen,no thought of the heart has ever comprehended,and it was never called by any name.
"And a luminous cloud appeared there. He said,'Let an angel come into being as my attendant.'
"A great angel,the enlightened divine Self-Generated,emerged from the cloud. Because of him,four other angels came into being from another cloud,and they became attendants for the angelic Self-Generated. The Self-Generated said,[48] 'Let […] come into being […],' and it came into being […]. And he [created] the first luminary to reign over him. He said,'Let angels come into being to serve [him],' and myriads without number came into being. He said,'[Let] an enlightened aeon come into being,' and he came into being. He created the second luminary [to] reign over him,together with myriads of angels without number,to offer service. That is how he created the rest of the enlightened aeons. He made them reign over them,and he created for them myriads of angels without number,to assist them.
"Adamas was in the first luminous cloud that no angel has ever seen among all those called 'God.' He [49] […] that […] the image […] and after the likeness of [this] angel. He made the incorruptible [generation] of Seth appear […] the twelve […] the twentyfour […]. He made seventy-two luminaries appear in the incorruptible generation,in accordance with the will of the Spirit. The seventy-two luminaries themselves made three hundred sixty luminaries appear in the incorruptible generation,in accordance with the will of the Spirit,that their number should be five for each.
"The twelve aeons of the twelve luminaries constitute their father,with six heavens for each aeon,so that there are seventy-two heavens for the seventy-two luminaries,and for each [50] [of them five] firmaments,[for a total of] three hundred sixty [firmaments …]. They were given authority and a [great] host of angels [without number],for glory and adoration,[and after that also] virgin spirits,for glory and [adoration] of all the aeons and the heavens and their firmaments.
"The multitude of those immortals is called the cosmos---- that is,perdition----by the Father and the seventy-two luminaries who are with the Self-Generated and his seventytwo aeons. In him the first human appeared with his incorruptible powers. And the aeon that appeared with his generation,the aeon in whom are the cloud of knowledge and the angel,is called [51] El. […] aeon […] after that […] said,'Let twelve angels come into being [to] rule over chaos and the [underworld].' And look,from the cloud there appeared an [angel] whose face flashed with fire and whose appearance was defiled with blood. His name was Nebro,which means 'rebel'; others call him Yaldabaoth. Another angel,Saklas,also came from the cloud. So Nebro created six angels----as well as Saklas----to be assistants,and these produced twelve angels in the heavens,with each one receiving a portion in the heavens.
"The twelve rulers spoke with the twelve angels: 'Let each of you [52] […] and let them […] generation [----one line lost----] angels':
The first is [S]eth,who is called Christ.
猶大福音

  猶大福音

The [second] is Harmathoth,who is […].
The [third] is Galila.
The fourth is Yobel.
The fifth [is] Adonaios.
These are the five who ruled over the underworld,and first of all over chaos.
"Then Saklas said to his angels,'Let us create a human being after the likeness and after the image.' They fashioned Adam and his wife Eve,who is called,in the cloud,Zoe. For by this name all the generations seek the man,and each of them calls the woman by these names. Now,Sakla did not [53] com[mand …] except […] the gene[rations …] this […]. And the [ruler] said to Adam,'You shall live long,with your children.'"
Judas said to Jesus,"[What] is the long duration of time that the human being will live?"
Jesus said,"Why are you wondering about this,that Adam,with his generation,has lived his span of life in the place where he has received his kingdom,with longevity with his ruler?"
Judas said to Jesus,"Does the human spirit die?"
Jesus said,"This is why God ordered Michael to give the spirits of people to them as a loan,so that they might offer service,but the Great One ordered Gabriel to grant spirits to the great generation with no ruler over it----that is,the spirit and the soul. Therefore,the [rest] of the souls [54] [----one line missing----].
"[…] light [----nearly two lines missing----] around […] let […] spirit [that is] within you dwell in this [flesh] among the generations of angels. But God caused knowledge to be [given] to Adam and those with him,so that the kings of chaos and the underworld might not lord it over them."
Judas said to Jesus,"So what will those generations do?"
Jesus said,"Truly I say to you,for all of them the stars bring matters to completion. When Saklas completes the span of time assigned for him,their first star will appear with the generations,and they will finish what they said they would do. Then they will fornicate in my name and slay their children [55] and they will […] and [----about six and a half lines missing----] my name,and he will […] your star over the [thir]teenth aeon."
After that Jesus [laughed].
[Judas said],"Master,[why are you laughing at us]?"
[Jesus] answered [and said],"I am not laughing [at you] but at the error of the stars,because these six stars wander about with these five combatants,and they all will be destroyed along with their creatures."
Judas said to Jesus,"Look,what will those who have been baptized in your name do?"
Jesus said,"Truly I say [to you],this baptism [56] […] my name [----about nine lines missing----] to me. Truly say to you,Judas,[those who] offer sacrifices to Saklas […] God [----three lines missing----] everything that is evil.
"But you will exceed all of them. For you will sacrifice the man that clothes me. Already your horn has been raised,your wrath has been kindled,your star has shown brightly,and your heart has […]. [57]
"Truly […] your last […] become [----about two and a half lines missing----],grieve [----about two lines missing----] the ruler,since he will be destroyed. And then the image of the great generation of Adam will be exalted,for prior to heaven,earth,and the angels,that generation,which is from the eternal realms,exists. Look,you have been told everything. Lift up your eyes and look at the cloud and the light within it and the stars surrounding it. The star that leads the way is your star."
Judas lifted up his eyes and saw the luminous cloud,and he entered it. Those standing on the ground heard a voice coming from the cloud,saying,[58] […] great generation […] … image […] [----about five lines missing----].
[…] Their high priests murmured because [he] had gone into the guest room for his prayer. But some scribes were there watching carefully in order to arrest him during the prayer,for they were afraid of the people,since he was regarded by all as a prophet. They approached Judas and said to him,"What are you doing here? You are Jesus' disciple."
Judas answered them as they wished. And he received some money and handed him over to them.

3中文譯本

循道士/[中]譯
本資料首發於2006年5月8日的儒家基督徒論壇討論版和學術版,為便於理解,轉載請保持本貼的完整。
這是耶穌在逾越節前3天在與加略人猶大交談中所呈現的秘密話語。
當耶穌顯現在地上時,為救世人他行了許多神跡奇事。有人悔改行義,有人悖逆犯罪而拒絕他。耶穌呼召了十二門徒。
譯者註:本譯本依據公開披露的英文譯本而譯出。由於原文丟失很多,故無法清晰地明白這篇文字里所謂的一些奧秘究竟是怎麼回事。但是對於基督徒而言,大可不必驚慌,因為它實在並沒有動搖耶穌死而復活的邏輯必要性和歷史真實性。它只是講耶穌上十字架之前的一些事情和談話,並沒有否定耶穌的流血代贖和死而復活等。
他給他們談論關於天國的奧秘和末后將要發生的事。他在門徒中常常表現得不像夫子倒像孩童。
一天,耶穌和門徒在猶大地,他看到他們聚集坐在一起恭行禮儀。當他看到門徒們聚坐在一起謝飯的時候,耶穌笑了。
門徒說:「主啊,為什麼笑我們的謝飯祈禱?我們是在做我們應該做的啊。」
耶穌回答他們說:「我並不是笑你們。你們做的這些事,並不是用你們自己的心來做的,而是僅僅因為這是讚美上帝的例行儀式而已。」
門徒們說:「主啊,你真是上帝的兒子。」
耶穌對他們說:「你們怎麼認識我的?我實實在在地告訴你們,你們這世代沒有人認識我。」
門徒聽見了,就氣惱並有不恭之意。
耶穌見他們不明白他的話,就對他們說:「為什麼激動氣惱呢?你們裡面的體貼肉體的心,……(缺文)激動你們靈里惱怒。你們中誰是堅強的,誰就可以到在我面前來。」
他們都說:「我們是堅強的。」
但是門徒們並不敢站到耶穌面前來,只有加略人猶大來到耶穌面前。但是他並不能夠正視耶穌的眼睛,把臉轉向一邊。
猶大對耶穌說:「我知道你是誰,也知道你從何處而來。你來自不朽之界,我根本不配談說差遣你的那位的聖名。」
耶穌知道猶大有可貴的靈性稟賦,就對他說:「離開眾人,我要把天國的奧秘告訴你。你可能會進入天國。但是你將會極其傷心。別人將會取代你的使徒職分,為了十二使徒的神聖完整。」
猶大對他說:「告訴我這些事什麼時候發生?這個世代的黎明大日何時到來?」
但是當他說這些時,耶穌離開了他。
在這以後的下一個早上,耶穌又出現在他的門徙們面前。
他們對他說:「主啊,在你離開我們的時候,你住哪兒,做什麼呢?」
耶穌對他們說:「我去了另外一個偉大和聖潔的世代。」
門徒對他說:「主啊,那個超越的聖潔的偉大世代,難道不就在今日嗎?」
耶穌聽見了,他笑對他們說:「為什麼用你們有限的心來思想那個偉大聖潔的世代?我實實在在地告訴你們,亘古以來沒有人見過那個世代,連眾星上的天使也不會主宰那個世代,地上必死的肉身是不能夠承受那個世代的。因為那世代不是來自……(缺文),而你們這個世代是來自人間的勢力,……(缺文)」
當門徙們聽見了這些話,他們都在心裡感到不安。他們不能說一句話。
另一天,耶穌來到他們面前。他們說:「主啊,我們已經看見你……,夜裡我們看見了個大異象……(缺文)。」
「為什麼……(缺文)躲藏?」
他們說;「一個大祭壇,十二個人是祭司,一群百姓擁擠在祭壇前,祭司……(缺文)等待……(缺文)」
耶穌說:「祭司是什麼樣子呢?」
他們說:「(缺文)……兩個星期,把他們的孩子和他們的妻子獻祭,彼此謙恭讚美,……一些人被交給罪惡和非法的事情,姦淫女人殺戮孩子,站在祭壇前的人奉你的名獻祭……(缺文)」
說完,他們安靜下來,很是困惑。
耶穌對他們說:「你們為什麼困惑呢?我實實在在地告訴你們,所有在祭壇前奉我名獻祭的祭司們,我再次給你們說,我的名已經被寫在超越人間此世的輝煌世代的……(缺文)上了。(人間此世的人們)已經奉我的名無恥地栽種了不結果子的樹。」
耶穌對他們說:「你們看見的站在祭壇前收祭品的那些祭司就是你們。你們就是你們看到的那自以為是地侍奉你們所認為的上帝的十二個人。獻祭的祭品就是你們誤導入歧途的祭壇前的那些百姓。……(缺文)一個人站著利用我的名,那些敬虔的世人就尊敬他,於是一個接著一個的祭司都站在祭壇前行姦淫污穢殘暴的事情,他們自以為是,竟然說自己像天使。祭司們對世人說:『看哪,通過我們的手,上帝已經悅納了你們的獻祭。』——他們大大地錯了。
那宇宙之主會說『末日他們將要悲哀切齒了。』」
耶穌對他們說:「停止在你們的祭壇前獻你們的什麼祭了吧!……(缺文)一個做麵包的不能餵飽天下所有的工人。」
耶穌對他們說:「不要和我鬥氣了吧。你們每個人都有自己的心靈之星,每個人……(缺文)……裡面的,他就來到了生命樹的泉水邊,……他就來到了上帝樂園的泉水邊。那裡的人們將永生,因為給他們的不是短暫的而是永恆的。」
猶大問耶穌說:「夫子,人間此世究竟會結什麼樣的果子?」
耶穌說,「人間此世的生命都會死的。有些人完成配得天國的壽命,靈魂離開他們,他們的身體會死但是他們的靈魂是活著的,他們將會被存。」
猶大問:「那麼,此世其餘的人將做什麼?」
耶穌說:「播種在岩石上卻還要收穫果子,是不可能的。……(缺文)智慧之手創造了肉身必死的人,為的是使人們的靈魂上升到永恆的天界。我實實在在地告訴你們,……(缺文)」
耶穌說了這些以後,他就走開了。
猶大說,「主啊,你已經聽完他們說的了,現在也聽聽我說吧。我見到了一個大異象。」
耶穌聽見了,他笑對他說,「你這第13號的靈魂,為什麼如此難纏呢?然而說出來吧,我會忍受你的。」
猶大說:「我在異象里看到我自己遭受十二門徒無情的石頭攻擊和苦待。我躲到你身後面。我看到一所房子,我不知道這房子有多大,眾人包圍著房子,房頂是綠葉般的,在房子的中間是一群人……(缺文)……說『主啊,讓我和這些人在一起吧』。」
耶穌回答說:「猶大,你的心靈之星已經帶你去了你現在不該去的地方了。」 他繼續說,「沒有生為地上肉身的哪個人是配進入你已經看見的那所房子的,那地方是為聖潔之輩保留的。統治那裡的既不是太陽也不是月亮,也沒有地上的日子,但是聖潔之輩可以在那裡,與聖天使永恆相伴。看哪,我已經給你講明了天國的奧秘,也指出了你目前心思的迷誤,並且……(缺文)」
猶大問:「主啊,我的生命種子能夠確定會被保存在天國那所房子里嗎?」
耶穌回答他說:「來,我……(缺文),但是當你看見天國和天國世代時將會非常傷心。」
猶大聽見了,向他說:「對我會有何益處呢,你把我和天國世代的人們區別開來?」
耶穌回答說:「你將成為那第13個,並且你將被世人咒罵,——你終將回來統治他們。在末后的日子他們將詛咒你直到聖潔世代產生。」
耶穌說:「來吧, 我要把從沒有人知曉的奧秘告訴你。有一個無限美妙的地方,甚至天使也不曾見識它的存在。那裡有一位不可見的至高者存在,天使的眼睛也不曾見識,人心也無法想象,任何人都無法名狀。
那裡有明亮的雲存在。那位至高者說:『讓一個天使來做我的管家吧。』
於是一個智慧非凡的大天使就自動現身於雲端。他讓另外四位天使也從別處雲端現身,他們就成了至高者的管家,至高者說『要有什麼』於是就有了什麼。他創造了最初的由他統治的光明之星。至高者說『要多多有天使來聽命』於是就有了無數的天使。至高者說『要有永遠光明的國度』於是那個就有了。至高者又創造了第二個以至其他更多的他所統治著的宇宙永光之星,以及無數聽命的天使。」
「天人阿大姆斯(原文是Adamas)原本住在最初由至高者創造的光明之星里。沒有一個天使曾經見過。他……像天使。他生出敬虔的後裔。(缺文)……塞特……12……24……(缺文)他按照至高者的意志造了72個永光的子國度。這72個光明子國度又生出了360個孫國度,即他們每個又創造出五個,這都是按照至高者的意志做的。
那12個光明國度是他們的父國度,每個國度有6個樂園,於是就有72個樂園。每個子國度又有5個樂園,於是又有360個樂園。他們因為他們的光榮的敬虔和純潔的靈魂而有權在天堂里享受天使的服侍。」
「這極多的不朽之輩就構成了宇宙,即由那些父國度和72個子國度所充斥其間的。第一個人有敬虔的品質,他的後裔有永生者。永生的智慧存在天上和天使那裡。……(缺文)說:『讓12個天使治理空虛混沌的地面吧。』看哪,從雲端有個臉面帶著血與火的天使出現了,他的名字叫尼布路(Nebro),意思是『反叛』。別人也稱他為妖大暴(Yaldabaoth)。另有一個天使,薩迦拉(Saklas),也來自雲端。於是尼布路(Nebro)造了六個同薩迦拉(Saklas)一樣的天使作為幫手。這些天使又造出12個小天使。他們都掌握有天上的一些東西。」
「12個天使給12個小天使說話了:讓你們每人……(缺文)」
第一是稱為受膏者(Christ)的,
第二是叫哈馬索(Harmathoth)的,
第三是叫加里拉(Galila)的,
第四是叫約貝(Yobel)的,
第五是叫安東奈(Adonaios)的。
這些是過去以來一直治理著下界的五位,是在地上為首的。
「薩迦拉(Saklas)對天使說:『讓我們模仿著我們的樣子形象來造人吧。』他們就造出了亞當和他的妻子夏娃,就是雲間稱為『人』(Zoe)的。所有的世人都尋根追溯到亞當這個男人,世人通過這些名字也常提起那個女人來。薩迦拉(Saklas)沒有做……(缺文)並且 對亞當說:『你將會很長壽,並會擁有眾多的孩子。』」
猶大問耶穌:「人類能夠長久地活嗎?」
耶穌說:「為什麼你要疑惑這些事情呢?難道你不相信亞當與他的後裔已經生活在永生之主統治的天堂里了嗎?」
猶大問耶穌:「人的靈魂會死嗎?」
耶穌說:「上帝讓天使長米迦勒貸給人們靈魂,為了人們可以有所回報;但是至高者讓天使長加百列賜給那些能夠進入偉大世代的人們以不可磨滅的靈魂,……(缺文)的靈魂就……(缺文)」
「……天使世代里的人們的肉體裡頭的靈魂將……(缺文)。但上帝給亞當之輩以智慧,世界的王就不能夠勝過他們。」
猶大對耶穌說:「那些世代將來會怎樣呢?」
耶穌說,「我實實在在地告訴你,這些魔星們的作亂就要到頭了。當薩迦拉(Saklas)到了他的日期,他們的第一顆魔星將顯現在世人面前,他們要做他們想做的事情。他們將假借我的名行姦淫殘暴的事情,並且他們將……(缺文)我的名……(缺文)」。
說完,耶穌笑了。
猶大問:「主啊,你為什麼笑我們呢?」
耶穌回答說:「我不是在笑你們,而是在笑那些魔星們的錯誤。因為這六個魔星都要和他們所做的一起滅亡了。」
猶大對耶穌說:「看哪,那些奉你的名接受了洗禮的人將怎麼辦呢?」
耶穌說:「我實實在在地告訴你,這些奉我名而舉行的洗禮……(缺文),我實實在在地告訴你,猶大,那些向薩迦拉(Saklas)獻祭的人……(缺文)……任何事物那是邪惡的。
但是你將不同於他們所有人。因為你將犧牲我的這個肉身(原意是「穿我衣服的人」)。你就要被升上天國里,你的火就要被點燃,你的星已經開始明亮地顯現了,你的心……(缺文)
我實實在在地告訴你,你會痛苦……(缺文)……他被消滅了。那時,亞當的這偉大後裔將會被尊崇,因為他是天、地和天使的元首,他的根從亘古就有。看哪,我把一切都告訴你了。抬起你的眼睛,凝視雲端吧,瞧那雲端里的光和光周圍的群星吧,作開路先鋒的那顆星就是你。」
猶大舉目,看見一片光明的雲,他就被雲接進去了,那站在地上的人們聽到從雲端傳來的聲音說:「(缺文)……偉大的人……(缺文)。」
當看到耶穌進入房內禱告的時候,大祭司就悄悄地說了些什麼。但是文士們一直緊盯著耶穌以便在他禱告的時候好抓住他,因為他們害怕民眾,在民眾眼裡耶穌是先知。他們走向猶大說:「你在這裡做什麼?你是耶穌的門徒。」
猶大說出他們希望聽到的話。然後他接了賞錢,便將耶穌交給他們。

4緣起

古抄本的鑒定
2005年1月,亞利桑那大學以放射性碳定年法而聞名世界的加速質譜儀實驗室,鑒定取自這份手稿的微量莎草紙與皮革樣本,結果顯示古抄本的年代很可能介於西元220年至西元340年之間。
墨水分析由伊利諾州威斯蒙特的麥克隆實驗室進行,並確認所取樣的墨水經檢驗出含有碳黑的成分,黏著媒介則是樹膠——符合西元三、四世紀所使用的墨水。之後又進一步證明,這種含鐵質的墨水在諸多方面都符合埃及三世紀的其他種類金屬墨水。
另外從古抄本中選了幾頁送去進行多光譜照影術(MSI)分析——用來鑒定古文件成分,以及是否遭修改的技術。由楊百翰大學古抄本影像實驗室的金·沃爾(Gene A.Ware)在瑞士做多光譜照影分析。沃爾認為這份古抄本經多光譜照影所顯示的特性,與其他的古埃及文獻真跡趨於一致。為了證實麥克隆實驗室的發現,沃爾發現受測墨水經多光譜照影所顯示的特性,與含碳的金屬鐵墨水吻合——這點也符合古抄本的年代。在文稿中並無發現多重改寫(或多重上墨)的證據。
這份古抄本以埃及古柯普特語之沙希地方言所寫成,研究內容及文字風格的主要學者均認為,其神學觀念、文字特性反映出奈格漢馬地古卷——這些古卷於1945年在埃及出土,其年代可溯及基督宗教的最初幾世紀——的觀念及特性。加州橘郡查普曼大學研究聖經與基督教的教授馬文·梅爾(Marvin Meyer)、德國明斯特大學的柯普特學教授史帝芬·伊茂(Stephen Emmel),均同意這份古抄本反映出二世紀盛行的諾斯底教派的特殊觀點,希臘文原版的《猶大福音》便是在當時寫成,之後又抄寫成古柯普特語版。
其古字體亦或筆跡,均讓伊茂想起奈格漢馬地經卷中的手寫體。他說:「我在研究生涯看過數百份古抄本,這絕對是標準的古柯普特語手稿。我深信不疑。」
透過這五種方法的鑒定,專家斷定這份埋藏已久的手稿大約抄寫於西元300年左右。

保存與翻譯

手稿主要翻譯者凱瑟表示,他從未看過狀態如此糟糕的手稿,有的頁數不見,有些則被重新編排過,上半部編有頁碼的部分也破碎,還有近一千片碎片無法拼湊。他說:「這份古抄本非常脆弱,只要輕輕一碰就碎了。」
凱瑟得助於瑞士的莎草紙保存專家芙蘿倫斯·達爾布雷(Florence Darbre)與德國奧格斯堡大學的柯普特語專家格瑞果·沃斯特(Gregor Wurst),合作拼湊史上最複雜的拼圖之一。二十六頁長的《猶大福音》寫在十三張莎草紙的正反兩面,如果有段碎片在這頁看起來通順的話,在下一頁內容也必須接得流暢。這麼說好了:「將一份九到十頁的文件撕成碎片,丟掉一半,再重組另一半,你就知道這過程有多麼困難了。」凱瑟表示。
達爾布雷將易碎紙片夾在兩片薄玻璃之間,再拍下碎片與頁面的照片。藉助電腦程式記錄內文、記下遺漏部分,再試著比對兩者,並仔細地目視檢查配對部分的莎草紙纖維,確認是連續一貫。達爾佈雷、沃斯特與凱瑟已經在五年歲月中,辛苦復原八成以上的文稿。2006年2月,福音中所缺少的半頁在紐約市出現,並經過攝影、抄寫與翻譯成英文。
在沃斯特與馬文·梅爾的協助下,凱瑟與芝加哥大學的埃及古物學暨柯普特語學家馮斯華·高達(Francois Gaudard)合作翻譯出福音書。
這份古抄本譯自原始的希臘文版福音,希臘文版據信是介於正統(聖經)福音與西元180年之間的早期諾斯底教派基督徒所寫成。諾斯底教派相信,獲得救贖的方法便是透過知識——由耶穌傳授給較具影響力的一群人——亦即教導人們如何擺脫肉身羈絆,回到人類起源的精神領域。他們也相信真正的上帝、即耶穌之父,比舊約中創造宇宙且報復心重的上帝更崇高。《猶大福音》的作者相信,只有加略人猶大明了耶穌教誨的真正重要性與意義;他實行了耶穌的意旨,將耶穌交給當權者處置。
首次提到《猶大福音》是依勒內(Irenaeus)於西元180年間的著述《反異端》,當時的里昂是羅馬高盧地區,依勒內便是當地主教。該作品猛烈攻擊異於基督教教會主流,對耶穌與其信息持有不同看法的人。他所公然抨擊的對象中有一群人「宣稱唯有叛徒猶大是……知曉別人所不知的真相,完成背叛的秘辛……他們杜撰一個相關故事,命名為《猶大福音》。」依勒內宣告在當時所流傳的形形色色福音中,只有四部應該得到認可,亦即《馬太福音》、《馬可福音》、《路加福音》與《約翰福音》。學者相信,其他福音遭公告禁止使用之後,信徒便藏匿抄本。

5表現內容

《猶大福音》一開頭便說:「這是秘密記載,透露耶穌與加略人猶大在一周之間的對話,三日後便是逾越節。」學者認為這部福音所反映的中心思想符合諾斯底教派。在第一個場景中,耶穌便嘲笑門徒向「你的上帝」——舊約聖經中地位較低、創造世界的神——祈禱。他要求門徒正視他並了解他真正的身份,但是他們拒絕了。
最重要的一段是耶穌告訴猶大:「……你將凌駕他們所有人,因你將犧牲遮蔽我的肉身。」藉由協助耶穌脫離其肉體,猶大將解放耶穌的精神自我,或內在的神性。
猶大多次因為身份特殊,多次雀屏中選。「先避開其他人,我要告訴你天國的謎。或許你有可能上天國,但是你卻會因此經歷莫大悲痛,」耶穌說。他還告訴猶大,「我已經告訴你所有事情。舉目注視白雲,注視雲內的光線、四周的星辰。最前頭那顆星星就是你。」
這部福音書也指出猶大將遭到其他門徒蔑視,其實他比他們更受到器重。「…後人世代都將譴責你——但是你終將統治他們,」耶穌說。猶大也指出他預見自己將遭到其他門徒猛烈攻擊:「我在這個幻想當中看見其他十二個門徒向我丟石頭,遭到『嚴厲』迫害。」
福音書中有一段似乎是猶大改變形象。「猶大舉目,看到光明雲彩便走進去。」地面上的人聽到雲朵發出聲音,卻因為這段古抄本有所不全,因此永遠也無法知道雲朵說了什麼。
福音書的結尾相當突兀。「他們『擒拿耶穌的官兵』走向猶大說,『你在這裡做什麼?你是耶穌的門徒。』猶大說出他們希望聽到的話。然後他拿了賞錢,便將耶穌出賣給他們。」這部福音書並未提到耶穌被釘十字架或是耶穌復活。

6學者看法

主導研究的聖經學者相信,耶穌與猶大之間的另類關係,正是一窺早期基督教看法的重要契機,也再次證明早期基督教會的多元化。
哈林頓史皮爾潘恩基金會贊助的普林斯頓大學宗教教授伊蓮·佩格斯(Elaine Pagels),是諾斯底福音的權威之一,她說:「《猶大福音》這項驚人的發現,以及《多馬福音》、《馬利福音》等其他埋藏將近兩千年的眾多發現,改變了我們對早期基督宗教的認知。這些發現推翻了單一宗教的神話,證明早期基督宗教活動如此多元化又令人著迷。」
「要發現先前不為人所知,尤其是早期基督教曾提過的福音手稿,是極為罕見的事。《猶大福音》闡明正在發展的基督教精神特徵,並且再度提醒我們早期教會的豐富多樣化,」查普曼大學的馬文·梅爾說。
克雷格·艾凡(Craig Evans)是加拿大新斯科細亞省窩夫維的阿卡迪亞神學院新約聖經教授,他大力讚賞《猶大福音》的發現與出版。「《猶大福音》是重要的第二世紀文獻,因為這份抄本見證了當時的基督徒對耶穌與門徒的關係有各種看法。這部福音書或許還能幫助我們,更了解新約福音暗指的事物。」
這份古抄本仍繼續進行修復、抄寫、翻譯,殘缺不全的工作、無法拼回原位的碎片在攝影之後公諸於世,凱瑟希望後代學者能繼續努力拚出全貌,找到更多遺失的頁數。
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