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提圖斯·盧克萊修·卡魯斯(Titus Lucretius Carus,約前99年~約前55年),羅馬共和國末期的詩人和哲學家,以哲理長詩《物性論》(De Rerum Natura)著稱於世。

1簡介

盧克萊修

  盧克萊修

古羅馬哲學家。他繼承古代原子學說,特別是闡述並發展了伊壁鳩魯的哲學觀點。認為物質的存在是永恆的,提出了「無物能由無中生,無物能歸於無」的唯物主義觀點。反對神創論,認為宇宙是無限的,有其自然發展的過程,人們只要懂得了自然現象發生的真正原因,宗教偏見便可消失。承認世界的可知性,認為感覺是事物流射出來的影像作用於人的感官的結果,是一切認識的基礎和來源,駁斥了懷疑論。認為幸福在於擺脫對神和死亡的恐懼,得到精神的安寧和心情的恬靜。著有哲學長詩《物性論》。

2生平

關於盧克萊修的生平,歷史學家所知甚少。唯一可以確定的是他是當時在羅馬上層很有影響力的貴族詩人蓋烏斯·梅米烏斯的朋友或門客,《物性論》一書就是獻給梅米烏斯的。西塞羅在寫給弟弟昆圖斯的書信中簡短地提到盧克萊修,但只是提到名字並讚賞其才華而已;有的學者據此認為,《物性論》最初就是由西塞羅出版的。維吉爾引用過盧克萊修的詩句,但這對確定盧克萊修的生平毫無幫助。4世紀時的兩位教會作家埃利烏斯·多納圖斯和聖哲羅姆的著作中有關於盧克萊修的一些極簡短的記述,通過它們可大致推斷出盧克萊修的生卒年;當然,這兩位教會作家的記述的可靠性也存疑。
從盧克萊修的唯一傳世作品《物性論》來看,他是個伊壁鳩魯學派的學者。與不少前蘇格拉底時期的哲學家一樣,他用詩歌的方式來闡述哲學思想。《物性論》一詩分為6卷,用抑揚六步格寫成,其內容主要是闡明伊壁鳩魯的哲學,尤其是原子論學說。由於伊壁鳩魯本人著作的大量散失,盧克萊修的《物性論》對研究伊壁鳩魯學派的思想具有重大意義。
從其著作來看,盧克萊修可歸為唯物主義者。他反對當時盛行的畢達哥拉斯學派關於靈魂不滅和輪迴轉世的學說。盧克萊修亦反對神創論,認為物質的存在是永恆的,整個世界包括神都是由原子組成的。

3哲學觀點

「思想和靈魂的本質是有形體的……(而且是)有生死的。如果靈魂是長生不死的,並又能在出生的時候進入我們的肉體,為什麼我們就不能夠記住遙遠的時代,也留不住以前的行動痕迹呢?如果思想的力量完全被改變了,所有對過去的記憶都丟失了,那麼,我認為這與死亡毫無二致。因此,你們得承認,以前存在的靈魂已經消失了,現在存在的靈魂已經形成。」

4英文簡介

Born c. 94 B.C.E. Died c. 54 B.C.E.
Little is known of Lucretius』s life, apart from his authorship of the poem De rerum natura (On the Nature of Things, 6 books).
Influenced by Greek philosopher Epicurus (341-270 B.C.E.) who was concerned with how to lead a happy life and achieve ataraxia (『absence of disturbance』)
This concern ultimately derives from his 『atomic theory』 (the basis of life). Epicurus gives Lucretius a materialist philosophy in which knowledge is based on sense perception NOT on a belief in the Gods
Lucretius does not see the world as having a divine plan and urges that we should not fear death. For him, the Gods exist but have no interest in or influence over human affairs. Instead, the Gods represent ataraxia itself, living an undisturbed and harmonious life.
Lucretius calls atoms 『the ultimate law』. In other words, the matter of the universe creates the conditions in which we live and die NOT the Gods or a divine plan
For him, religions are out of balance with the universe. In fact, Lucretius often attacked religion as a form of blindness and a cause of evil: 『Too often Religion / Herself gives birth to evil and blasphemous deeds』
Lucretius thinks about the universe: whether it has a limit or not. He argues: 『All things limit something else […] but nothing / Exists beyond this All to close it in』
He wonders about what will make us happy and says that 『luxury […] is useless for our bodies』 and that Nature supplies all that we need
Lucretius sees death as the necessary consequence of change in the universe and argues that it is not something to fear. Our atoms will simply disperse and become part of matter again.
He does not believe in Hell or an Underworld of punishment and says instead: 『This life of fools […] this is the true Hell』. In other words, humankind creates its own torture and unhappiness, NOT the Gods.
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