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英語中,只含有一個主謂結構並且句子各成分都只由單詞或短語構成的獨立句子或分句叫做簡單句。在簡單句中主語和謂語是句子的主幹,是句子的核心

1概念

除口語中的一些特殊句型外,英語的句子必須含有主語和謂語,否則不成句子,無法完整地表達思想。除了主語和謂語外,簡單句中還可以有賓語、表語、補語、狀語、定語等。簡單句是複雜句子的基本組成單位,因此正確理解、使用簡單句十分重要。簡單句可歸納為六個基本句型。學習這些基本句型要從動詞入手,因為不同類型的動詞要求不同的句型。

2簡單句

基本形式
簡單句的基本形式是由一個主語加一個謂語構成。其它各種句子形式都是由此句型發展而來,如五大基本句型:

3基本句型

1.主語+謂語
謂語一定是動詞
這種句型簡稱為主謂結構,其謂語一般都是不及物動詞,例:
Things change.事物是變化的。
Nobody went.沒有人去。
--Did you go by sea?你們走的是海路嗎?
--NO,we flew.不,我們是飛去。
2.主語+連繫動詞+表語
也叫做主系表
這種句型稱為主系表結構,其實連繫動詞在形式上也是一種謂語動詞,但實質上表語成了謂語,例:
Mr. Turner is an artist.特納先生是位畫家。
The milk went sour.牛奶變酸了。
She became a lawyer.她當了律師。
註:我們平常所說的be動詞有兩種含義:
1、助動詞的be;
2、作為連繫動詞的be;
3.主語+謂語+賓語
賓語有兩種 :間接賓語和直接賓語
這種句型可稱為主謂賓結構,它的謂語一般多是及物動詞,例:
We never beat children.我們從來不打孩子。
My sister will fix everything.我姐姐會料理一切。
4主語+謂語+賓語+賓語
這種句型可稱為主謂賓賓結構,其謂語應是可有雙賓語的及物動詞,兩個賓語一個是間接賓語,一個是直接賓語,其中指物或指事的就是直接賓語 指人(或動物)的就是間接賓語。例:
He gaves the book to his sister.他把這本書給了他的妹妹。
I'll write you a long letter.我將寫給你一封長信。
5.主語+謂語+賓語+賓補
所謂賓語補足語就是補充說明前面的賓語
這種句型可簡稱為主謂賓補結構,其補語是賓語補語,與賓語一起即構成複合賓語,例:
I found the book easy.我發現這本書不難。(形容詞easy作補語)
I'll let him go.我將讓他去。(不定式go用作補語)
注意:有時兩個或更多的並列主語擁有一個共同的謂語,甚至並列有兩個主語和兩個謂語,這樣的句子仍然是簡單句,例:
China and other countries in the east Asia are developing rapidly.中國和東亞其它國家正在迅速地發展。(China and other countries並列主語)
Mr. Wang and I often work together and help each other.王先生和我常在一起工作互相幫助。
6.There be句型
英語六種基本句型列式
如下:
基本句型一:S+V (主+謂)
基本句型二:S+V+P (主+系+表)
基本句型三:S+V+DO (主+謂+賓)
基本句型四:S+V+IO+DO(主+謂+間賓+直賓)
基本句型五:S+V+DO+OC (主+謂+賓+賓補)
基本句型六:There be

4互換解析

把一個簡單句轉換成一個複合句,一般是將一個短語變為一個從句。相反,複合句轉換為簡單句時要把一個從句變為一個短語。
1. The foreigners want to know how they can learn to do Chinese Kongfu well. → The foreigners want to know how to learn to do Chinese Kongfu well.
【解析】含賓語從句的複合句變為簡單句,可以把賓語從句改為"疑問詞+不定式"的結構或者改為"主語+謂語+賓語+賓補"這種結構;簡單句變複合句,一般是把賓語擴大為賓語從句,其賓語從句應該用將來時或"情態動詞+動詞原形"的形式。
2. She was so weak that she couldn't take care of her baby. → She was too weak to take care of her baby.
3. The ice on the lake was so thin that people couldn't skate on it. → The ice on the lake was not thick enough for people to skate on.
【解析】當so...that從句是否定句,其主語與主句主語相同,可用句型too...to do sth.替換;當so...that從句是否定句,其主語與主句主語不相同,可用句型too...for sb. to do sth. 替換;當so...that從句是肯定句,其主語與主句主語相同時,可用...enough to do sth.替換; 當so...that從句是肯定句,其主語與主句主語不相同時,可用...enough for sb. to do sth.替換。
4. Be brave, or you'll lose your chance. → If you aren't brave, you'll lose your chance.
5. Come on, or we'll miss the early bus. → If we don't hurry, we'll miss the early bus.
【解析】 "祈使句+or+簡單句"可轉換為"if引導的否定的條件句+主句"的句型;"祈使句+and+簡單句"可轉換為"if引導的肯定的條件句+主句"的句型。
6. She seems to be worried now. → It seems that she is worried now.
【解析】 seem是關於內心活動的用語,含有心中所想象的意思在內。seem後接動詞不定式,也常用It seems that結構。簡單句變為複合句應特別注意它們之間的同義可換性。
II. 簡單句與簡單句的轉換
簡單句本身可以通過對句子成分(包括主語、謂語、賓語、狀語和定語)或句型自身的調整來表達相同或相近的意思。常見的轉換方法有:① "詞與詞的轉換"(如:反義詞的轉換、同義詞的轉換、代詞的轉換、詞性的轉換);② "詞與短語的轉換"(of屬格與's屬格的轉換、時間表達的轉換等);③"句式與句式的轉換"(如:How old is (are)...?與What is sb.'s age?的轉換、How do you like...?與What do you think of... ? 的轉換、"動詞 + sb. + sth."與"動詞 + sth. + 介詞 + sb."的轉換等)。
7. We spent twenty minutes cleaning the room yesterday. → It took us twenty minutes to clean the room yesterday.
8. The motorbike cost him 7,000 yuan last year. → He paid / spent 7,000 yuan for / on (buying) the motorbike last year.
【解析】 spend與take都可以表示"做某事花某人多少時間或金錢"。 spend的主語用某人表示; take的主語用it。即"(Somebody)spend some time (in) doing sth. / on sth."這一句型可換成"It takes / took somebody some time to do sth." 句型。兩個句型都可表示"某人花若干時間做某事"。但在轉換時,應注意語序的變化,尤其是前一個句型中(in) doing或on sth.,在後一個句型中應改為to do sth.。"spend...doing sth."相當於pay...for, 它們之間可轉換使用。
9. Jane says science isn't so interesting as music to her. → Jane says science is less interesting than music to her.
10. She rides a bicycle more carefully than anyone else in her class. → She is the most careful bicycle rider in her class.
【解析】常見的比較等級之間的轉換有:①"not so / as+原級+ as"可改為"比較級+ than";② "not so / as+原級+as"可改為"less+原級(多音節詞)+than";③ "最高級+of / in短語"可改為"比較級+than any other+複數名詞 / than any of the others / anyone else / anything else";④"like...better (than)"可改為"prefer...(to)"。
11. The exhibition of children's art began a few days ago. → The exhibition of children's art has been on for a few days.
12. My grandpa joined the Party thirty years ago. → My grandpa has been in the Party for thirty years.
13. Sam's grandfather died 10 years ago. → Sam's grandfather has been dead for 10 years.
【解析】含一般過去時與現在完成時句式之間的轉換是很常用的。在現在完成時中,延續性動詞與表示一段時間的狀語連用,瞬間動詞不能。但是,可以用別的方式來表達:①瞬間動詞用於"一段時間+ago"的一般過去時的句型中;②瞬間動詞可改寫成與之相對應的延續性動詞及短語,與一段時間連用;③ 瞬間動詞用於"It is +一段時間+since+一般過去時"的句型中;④瞬間動詞用於"Some time + has / have passed + since + 一般過去時"的句型中。另外,將來時"be going to"結構與"will / shall"結構的轉換;進行時(如come , go動詞)可與將來時的轉換。
14. You must throw the broken pottery away at once. → The broken pottery must be thrown away at once.
15. Every one should give back his or her library books on time. → Library books should be returned on time.
16. People make great use of computers widely in the world. → Computers are widely used in the world.
【解析】
①主動句變被動句的方法是:首先把主動句的賓語變為被動句的主語,再把謂語動詞變為被動語態,最後加上介詞by的賓語(有時可省略);
②被動句變為主動句的方法是:先把被動句中by的賓語變為主動句的主語(如被動句中省略了介詞by及其賓語,一般可以用 we, you, they等作主語),再把謂語動詞改為主動語態(即把be去掉),最後把被動句的主語改為主動句的賓語,主動句的時態與被動句中be的時態一致;
③在let, make, hear, see, watch等后的動詞不定式在主動語態中不帶to,變為被動語態時,要加上to;
④雙賓語動詞結構變為被動語態,則應在間接賓語前加上相應的介詞to或for。如:
Li Lei was given a bike by Mr Wang. → Mr Wang gave a bike to Li Lei.
III. 二合併一成簡單句
有時為了使句子結構更加緊湊,語言更加生動,我們可以把兩個或兩個以上的簡單句合併為簡單句,這樣,句子意思上的聯繫顯得更密切。
17. Lucy can't sing the English song "Yesterday Once More". And Lily can't sing it, either. → Neither Lucy nor Lily can sing the English song "Yesterday Once More".
18. This store sells men's shoes, and it also sells men's clothes. → This store sells not only men's shoes but also men's clothes.
【解析】
兩個意義相關的簡單句合併為一個簡單句。常見的方式有三類:①用both...and, not only...but also, either...or, neither...nor, not...but等連接詞合併。由not only...but also, either...or, neither...nor等連接的並列主語,通常遵循就近原則,即謂語需根據後面的名詞(片語)的單複數而定;②用too...to, enough to等含不定式結構合併;③用分詞短語合併。
IV. 二合併一成複合句
由兩個簡單句合併成一個複合句,多把一個分句轉換成一個從句。如:
19. "Did you sleep well last night?" David asked her. → David asked her if / whether she slept well last night.
20. I won't go with my brother, he thinks. → He doesn't think I will go with my brother.
21. Where does he live? I don't know. →I don't know where he lives.
【解析】構成賓語從句應注意三點:
①賓語從句的引導詞是否缺少或用錯;
②賓語從句語序是否是陳述句的語序;
③賓語從句的時態是否與主句謂語動詞的時態相呼應。
【測試】按要求改寫下列句子。每空限填一詞。
1. There is a strong wind today.
It's very ________ today.
2. What's the weather like in America?
________ ________ the weather in America?
3. We must keep the noise under 50 dbs (分貝) here.
The noise must ________ ________ under 50 dbs here.
4. Wu Dong joined the League three years ago.
Wu Dong has ________ in the League ________ three years.
5. I didn't know what I should say.
I didn't know what ________ ________.
6. Does the shop close at six every day? Do you know?
Do you know ________ the shop ________ at six every day?
7. Lucy is the tallest girl in her class.
Lucy is ________ than ________ ________ girls in her class.
8. Tom is in the football team. Jim is in the football team, too.
________ Tom ________ Jim ________ on the football team.
9. John will go to bed after he finishes his homework.
John ________ ________ to bed ________ he finishes his homework.
10. He was so happy that he couldn't say a word when he was told the news.
He was ________ happy ________ say a word when he was told the news.
Key: 1. windy 2. How is / How about / What about 3. be kept 4. been; for 5. to say 6. if; closes 7. taller; any other 8. Both; and; are 9. won't go; until 10. too; to。

5誤區提醒

不同的動詞使用的句型也不盡一樣,因此在學習動詞時,應掌握動詞的類型。
以 get 為例:
He's getting angry. (S V P)
He got through the window. (S V M)
You'll get a surprise. (S V O)
He got his shoes and socks wet. (S V O C)
He got himself into trouble. (S V OM)
He got her a splendid present. (S V o O)
在句子中詞類和詞的位置也影響句子的句型和意思:
I found the book easily.我很容易地找到了這本書。(S V O M)
I found the book easy. 我覺得這本書很容易。 (S V O C)
I have to do something. 我得做點事。
I have something to do. 我有點事做。

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