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語態,是英語語法的基礎,在語法學中,語態是描述句子中動詞和參與此動作之主語之間關係的一個術語。當主語是動作的發起者(或之一)時,稱為主動語態;如果主語為動作之承受者,稱為被動語態。 而在現代英語中,隨著感情化的加深,語態在其中的作用越來越大,所以要學好英語,必須學好語態並不是空話。

1概念

英語語法--動詞的語態
短語動詞的被動語態
短語動詞是一個整體,不可丟掉後面的介詞或副詞。
This is a photo of the power station that has been set up in
my hometown.
My sister will be taken care of by Grandma.
Such a thing has never been heard of before..
不用被動語態的情況
1)及物動詞或動詞短語無被動語態:
appear, die disappear, end (vi. 結束), fail, happen, last, lie,
remain, sit, spread, stand
break out, come true, fall asleep, keep silence, lose heart,
take place.
After the fire, very little remained of my house.
比較: rise, fall, happen是不及物動詞;raise, seat是及物動詞。
(錯) The price has been risen.
(對) The price has risen.
(錯) The accident was happened last week.
(對) The accident happened last week.
(錯) The price has raised.
(對) The price has been raised.
(錯) Please seat.
(對) Please be seated.
要想正確地使用被動語態,就須注意哪些動詞是及物的,哪些是不及物的。特別是一詞多義的動詞往往有兩種用法。解決這一問題唯有在學習過程中多留意積累。
2)不能用於被動語態的及物動詞或動詞短語
fit, have, hold, marry, own, wish, cost, notice, watch
agree with, arrive at / in, shake hands with, succeed
in, suffer from, happen to, take part in, walk into, belong to
This key just fits the lock. 這把鑰匙只適合於這把鎖。
Your story agrees with what had already been heard. 你的故事與聽說的相符。
3)系動詞無被動語態
appear, be become, fall, feel, get, grow, keep, look,
remain, seem, smell, sound, stay, taste, turn
It sounds good. 聽起來很好。
4)帶同源賓語的及物動詞,反身代詞,相互代詞,不能用於被動語態:
die, death, dream, live, life
She dreamed a bad dream last night. 她昨晚做了個噩夢。
5)當賓語是不定式時,很少用於被動語態
(對) She likes to swim. 她喜愛游泳。
(錯) To swim is liked by her.
被動形式表示主動意義
be determined, be pleased, be graduated (from), be finished,
be prepared (for), be occupied (in), get marries
He is graduated from a famous university.
他畢業於一所有名的大學。
注意: 表示同某人結婚,用marry sb. 或get married to sb. 都可。
He married a rich girl. 他娶了一個有錢的女孩。
He got married to a rich girl. 他娶了一個有錢的女孩。
7 need/want/require/worth
注意:當 need, want, require, worth(形容詞)後面接doing
也可以表示被動。
Your hair wants cutting. 你的頭髮該理了。
The floor requires washing. 地板需要衝洗。
The book is worth reading. 這本書值得一讀。

2典型例題

The library needs___, but it』ll have to wait until Sunday.
A. cleaning B. be cleaned C. clean D. being cleaned
答案A. need (實意) +n /to do,need (情態)+ do,當為被動
語態時,還可need + doing. 本題考最後一種用法,選A。如有to
be clean 則也為正確答案。
典:done,"不可能已經"。must not do 不可以(用於一般現在時)。
一、 被動語態的用法:
1. 一般現在時的被動語態構成:is / am / are + 及物動詞的過去分詞
Our classroom is cleaned everyday.
I am asked to study hard.
Knives are used for cutting things.
2. 一般過去時的被動語態構成:was / were + 及物動詞的過去分詞
A new shop was built last year.
Dinosaur eggs were laid long long ago.
3. 現在完成時的被動語態構成:has / have + been + 及物動詞的過去分詞
This book has been translated into many languages.
Many man-made satellites have been sent up into space by many countries.
4. 一般將來時的被動語態構成:will+ be + 及物動詞的過去分詞
A new hospital will be built in our city.
Many more trees will be planted next year.
5. 含有情態動詞的被動語態構成:情態動詞+ be + 及物動詞的過去分詞
Young trees must be watered often.
Your mistakes should be corrected right now.
The door may be locked inside.
Your homework can be handed in tomorrow.
6. 現在進行時的被動語態構成:am / is / are + being + 及物動詞的過去分詞
Uncle Wang is mending my bike now.→
My bike is being repaired by Tom now.
They are planting trees over there. →
Trees are being planted over there by them.
7. 不定式的被動語態:to + be + 及物動詞的過去分詞
There are two books to be read. →
There are twenty more trees to be planted.
二、 怎樣把主動語態改成被動語態?
把主動語態改為被動語態非常簡單,可以遵循以下幾個步驟:
1. 先找出謂語動詞;
2. 再找出謂語動詞后的賓語;
3. 把賓語用作被動語態中的主語;
4. 注意人稱、時態和數的變化。
例:1. Bruce writes a letter every week. →A letter is written by Bruce every week.
2. Li Lei mended the broken bike this morning.→The broken bike was mended by Li Lei this morning.
3. He has written two novels so far.→Two novels have been written by him so far.
4. They will plant ten trees tomorrow.→Ten trees will be planted by them tomorrow.
5. Lucy is writing a letter now.→A letter is being written by Lucy now.
6. You must lock the door when you leave.→the door must be locked when you leave.
三、 使用被動語態應注意的幾個問題:
1. 不及物動詞無被動語態。
What will happen in 100 years.
The dinosaurs disappeared about 65 million years ago.
2. 有些動詞用主動形式表示被動意義。
This pen writes well.
This new book sells well.
3. 感官動詞或使役動詞使用省略to的動詞不定式,主動語態中不帶to ,但變為被動語態時,須加上to 。
例:make somebody do something→somebody+ be +made to do something
see somebody do something→somebody +be +seen to do something
A girl saw my wallet drop when she passed by.→My wallet was seen to drop by a girl when she passed by.
The boss made the little boy do heavy work.→The little boy was made to do heavy work by the boss.
4. 如果是接雙賓語的動詞改為被動語態時,直接賓語(物)作主語,那麼動詞后要用介詞,這個介詞是由與其搭配的動詞決定。
He gave me a book.→A book was given to me by him.
He showed me a ticket.→A ticket was shown to me by him.
My father bought me a new bike. →A new bike was bought for me by my father.
5. 一些動詞短語用於被動語態時,動詞短語應當看作一個整體,而不能丟掉其中的介詞或副詞。
We can』t laugh him. →He can』t be laugh by us.
He listens to the radio every day. →The radio is listened to by him every day.
The nurse is taking care of the sick man. →The sick man is being taken care of by the nurse.</CA>

3中間語態

某些語言(比如梵語、冰島語和古希臘語)有中間語態。中間語態在主動語態和被動語態的中間,因為主語不能被歸類為主動者或被動者但有二者的要素。表現得主動但表達被動行動的不及物動詞刻畫了英語中的中間語態。例如,在「The casserole cooked in the oven」,cooked 在語法上主動但在語義上被動,屬於中間語態。在古希臘語中,中間語態經常是反身的,指示主語做關於自身或為了自身的行動,比如「The boy washes himself」或「The boy washes」。它可以是及物動詞也可以是不及物動詞。它偶爾用在使役性意義上,比如「The father causes his son to be set free」或「The father ransoms his son」。
拉丁語中的很多異相動詞代表了倖存的原始印歐語中間語態;其中很多在羅曼語言如法語和西班牙語中倖存為強制性偽-反身動詞。

4被動語態

英語
屈折特徵已經退化的英語使用迂迴方式表現被動態。也就是並非利用動詞的某一形式來表現被動,而是使用若干辭彙的組合來形成被動態表現。具體地說,是由be助動詞和主動詞的過去分片語合而成。
日語
日語使用黏著的方式,通過在動詞后附著被動助動詞「れる・られる」(現代日語)或「る」(古典日語)來表現被動。但是由於日語也是主題優勢語言,賓語出現在一個語法上為主動句的主語位置的情況也經常能見到。另外,日語還存在一種稱為受害態的特殊被動表現。
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