1介紹

讓步狀語從句是狀語從句中的一種,其本身也是狀語從句。一般翻譯為「儘管……」或「即使……」,就是我們日常生活中用的「退一步說……」的感覺。

2使用的連詞

引導讓步狀語從句的連詞主要有以下這些:though,although,while,as; even if,even though; whether...or...; no matter+疑問詞,疑問詞-ever,regardless of+名詞/名詞短語/名詞從句,despite,in spite of。切記although,though 不可與but連用,但可以與still和yet連用。

3用法

⑴though,although表示「雖然,縱然」之意。
這兩個連詞意思大致相同,在一般情況下可以互換使用。在口語中,though較常使用,although比though正式,二者都可與yet,still或never,the less連用,但不能與but連用。例如:
I will remains firm though I must lower my physical sights.
儘管我得降低體育(鍛煉)的目標,但我的意志是堅強的。
Though I believe it,yet I must consider.
儘管我相信這一點,但我還得考慮考慮。
Although/Though he was exhausted,(still) he kept on working.
雖然他已經精疲力竭了,但仍然繼續工作。
Although/Though he is very old,(yet) he is quite strong.
他雖然年紀大了,身體還很健壯。
值得注意的是,although引導的讓步狀語從句位於主句之前的情況較多,though引導的讓步狀語從句可位於主句之前或主句之後。例如:
She passed the examination though she had not studied very hard. 她雖然不用功學習,考試卻及格了。
⑵as,though表示「雖然……但是」,「縱使……」之意。
as引導的讓步狀語從句必須以部分倒裝的形式出現,被倒裝的部分可以是表語、狀語或動詞原形,though也可用於這樣的結構中,但although不可以這樣用。例如:
Object as you may,I』ll go.(=Though/Although you may object,I』ll go.)
縱使你反對,我也要去。
Hard as/ though he works,he makes little progress. (=Though he works hard,he makes little progress.)
儘管他學習很努力,但幾乎沒取得什麼進步。
Child as/though he was,he knew what was the right thing to do.(=Though he was a child,he knew what was the right thing to do.)
雖然他是一個孩子,但他知道該做什麼。
Fast as you read,you can』t finish the book so soon.
縱然你讀得快,你也不能這麼快讀完這本書。
Lover of towns as I am ,I realize that I owe a debt to my early country life.
儘管我愛城市,但我知道,以往的鄉村生活使我受益匪淺。
Small as atome are,they are made up of still samller units.
儘管原子很小,但它們由更小的單位構成。
⑶even if,even though 表示「即使……」,「縱使……」之意,含有一種假設。
這兩個複合連詞的意思基本相同。它們常互換使用,但意義有細微差別。even if引導的讓步從句含有強烈的假定性,可用來表示與事實相反的假設,但不能用來描述已經發生的事實。而even though引導讓步狀語從句時,是以從句的內容為先決條件的,即說話人肯定了從句的事實,表示已經發生了的事。例如:
We』ll make a trip even if/though the weather is bad.
即使天氣不好,我們也要作一次旅行。
Even if he is poor,she loves him. (=He may be poor,yet she loves him.)
即使他很窮,但她還是愛他。
Even though he is poor,she loves him. (=He is poor,yet she loves him.)
儘管他很窮,但她還是愛他。
He seemed youthful even though he was an old man.
儘管他已經是老年人,但看上去仍然是朝氣蓬勃的。
You must come in if it's only a minute.
你一定要進來,哪怕就一分鐘呢。
⑷whether...or...表示「不論是否……」,「不管是……還是……」之意。
由這一個複合連詞引導的讓步狀語從句旨在說明正反兩方面的可能性都不會影響主句的意向或結果,所以它的語氣是比較強烈的,從而也更加堅定了主句的內容。例如:
You'll have to attend the ceremony whether you're free or busy.
不管你忙不忙,都要參加這個典禮。
Whether you believe it or not,it's true.
無論你是否相信,這都是真的。
Whether or not they win this battle,they won't win the war.
不管他們是否能贏得這次戰役,他們絕不會贏得這場戰爭。
⑸「no matter+疑問詞」或「疑問詞-ever」的含義為「……都……;不管……都……」
它們引導的讓步狀語從句可以互換。例如:
No matter what happened,he would not mind. (=Whatever happened,he would not mind.)
無論發生了什麼事情,他都不會介意的。
No matter who you are,you must keep the law.(=Whoever you are,you must keep the law.
不管你是誰,你都需要遵紀守法。
When anyone does something for you,no matter how samll and no matter whether he's a superior or servant,it's proper to say「Thank you」.
只要任何人替你做了一件事,不管事情多麼微不足道,也不管他是你的上司還是你的僕人,你都應該說聲「謝謝」。
但「no matter+疑問詞」結構只能引導讓步狀語從句,而「疑問詞-ever」還可以引導名詞性從句。例如:
Whatever (=No matter what) you say,I won』t believe you. (Whatever 引導讓步狀語句)
無論你說什麼,我都不會相信你。
I'll eat whatever (≠no matter what) you give me. (whatever引導賓語從句)
你給我吃什麼,我就吃什麼。
Whoever comes will be welcome. (Whoever 引導主語從句)
不管誰來都受到歡迎。
此外,有時while也可以引導讓步狀語從句,但一般要位於句首。例如:
While I like the colour,I don't like the shape.我雖然喜歡那顏色,但不喜歡那形狀。
綜上所述,我們可以看出,學習讓步狀語從句的關鍵是關聯詞的選用;其次,要注意的是由as引導的讓步狀語從句要用倒裝語序。
讓步狀語從句表示:雖然,儘管,即使等概念,由although,though(儘管,即使),however(無論怎樣),whatever(無論什麼),whoever(無論誰),whomever(無論誰),whichever(無論哪個),whenever(無論何時),wherever(無論哪裡),whether(是否),no matter (who,what,where,when,etc) (無論……),even if(即使),even though(即使)等詞引導。
如:We won』t be discouraged even if(=even though) we fail ten times.
我們就是失敗十次也不泄氣。
It was an exciting game,though / although no goals were scored.
那是一場精彩的球賽,儘管一個球都沒進。(though,although不能與 but連用)
Whether you believe it or not,it』s true.
不管你信不信,這是真的。
However (=No matter how) expensive it may be,I』ll take it.
無論它有多貴,我也要買下它。
Don』t let them in,whoever(=no matter who) they are.
不管他們是誰,別讓他們進來。
No matter what I say or how I say it,he always thinks I』m wrong.
無論我說什麼或怎麼說,他總認為是我錯。

4語法用法

1. no matter
what(who,which,when,etc.)與whatever(whoever,whichever,whenever,etc.)的區別:
當引導讓步狀語從句時,兩者相同,可以互換,但當引導名詞性從句(主語從句,賓語從句,表語從句和同位語從句)時則只能用whatever(whoever,whichever,whenever,etc)。如上面最後兩個例句可改為:
However pure the water looks,I do not want to drink it.
I want to marry the man I love,no matter who he may be.
下面句子不能用no matter結構(no matter不能引導名詞性從句):
Whoever comes back first is supposed to win the prize.(主語從句)
I am ready to do whatever you want me to .(賓語從句)
例證:
Whatever you did,I will accept.為讓步狀語從句.
I will accept whatever you did.為賓語從句.
2. as 引導讓步狀語從句的用法
引導讓步狀語從句時,as意為「雖然,儘管」,通常從句要倒裝,倒裝的方法是將從句的表語或狀語放在as之前,而用though引導讓步狀語從句時句字則不必倒裝(口語中也可倒裝)。
e.g. Heavily as it was raining outside,they started out very early.
Young as he is,he knows a lot=Though he is young 或Young though he is,he….
他雖然年輕,但懂得很多。(though 也有這種用法,可以替換as,但although沒有這種用法)
注意,名詞提句首時,不加冠詞:
e.g:teacher as he is,he likes Chinese very much(teacher 前不加a或the)。
though還可以用作副詞,放在句末。如:
It was hard work;; I enjoyed it,though=It was hard work,but I enjoyed it.那工作很苦,但是我喜歡干。
3.用though/although,as 引導讓步狀語從句時,句中不能用but表示轉折語氣。
不能說:Though he looks weak,but he is healthy.
而要說:Though he looks weak,he is healthy.
或者說:He looks weak,but he is healthy.
我自己認為讓步就是存在一定條件下的說法.
4 . however用作副詞,不可連接句子但可置於第二句的句首、句末或句中。要特別注意標點的使用。
eg: Alice is a good student.However,she has one shortcoming.愛麗絲是一個很好的學生,但她仍有缺點。He has not arrived. He may,however,come later. The composition is all right. There is room for improvement,however.
⒌ 除以上提到的從句連詞外,表示讓步的介詞短語有despite,in spite of,後接名詞。eg. Despite all these facts,we cannot ignore the advantages of learning through internet.
though和although引導讓步狀語從句時,不可以與but連用。漢語中用"雖然……但是……」,但英語中只用though,although或but即可。
although/though he is very old,he still works very hard.=(he is very old,he still works very hard)雖然他老了,但他仍然很努力地工作。不可說:although/though he is very old,but he still works very hard。
though和although可以與yet連用。此處yet雖與but同義,但它不是連詞,而是副詞。
though l knew the fact,yet l didnt say anything。儘管我知道,但我什麼都沒說。
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