標籤:賓語從句

在句子中起賓語作用的從句叫做賓語從句。賓語從句分為三類:動詞的賓語從句,介詞的賓語從句和形容詞的賓語從句。

1用法

動詞的賓語從句
大多數及物動詞都可以帶賓語從句
We all expect (that )they will win,for members of their team are stronger.
我們都預料他們會贏,因為他們的隊員更強壯.
He told us (that) they would help us through the whole work.
他告訴我們在整個工作中,他們都會幫忙的.
部分「動詞+副詞」結構也可以帶賓語從句
I have found out (that) all the tickets for the concert have been sold out.
我發現這場音樂會的所有票都賣光了.
Can you work out (that)how much we will spend during the trip
你能計算出這次旅行我們將花費多少錢嗎
動詞短語也可以帶賓語從句
常見的這些詞有:
make sure確保 make up one』s mind下決心 keep in mind牢記
Make sure that there are no mistakes in your papers before you turn them in.
當你在上交試卷前確保沒有任何錯誤.
可運用形式賓語it代替的賓語從句
①動詞find,feel,consider,make,believe,think等後面有賓語補足語的時候,則需要用it做形式賓語而將that賓語從句後置.
I think it necessary that we take plenty of drinks every day .
我認為我們每天多喝飲料是有必要的.
I feel it a pity that I haven』t been to the get-together.
我沒去聚會,感覺非常遺憾.
I have made it a rule that I keep diaries.
我每天寫日記成了習慣.
We all find it important that we (should) make a quick decision about this matter.
我們都認為對這件事馬上做出決定很重要.
②有些動詞帶賓語從句時需要在賓語與從句前加it(雙賓語)
這類動詞主要有:hate,take,owe,have,see to.award,lend.hand,
mail,offer,pass,pay,post,read,return,show,teach,tell
I hate it when they say with their mouths full of food.
我討厭他們滿嘴食物時說話.
He will have it that our plan is really practical.
他會認為我們的計劃確實可行.
We take it that you will agree with us.
我們認為你會同意我們的.
When you start the engine,you must see to it that car is in neutral.
開啟發動機時,一定要使汽車的離合器處於空擋位置.
③若賓語從句是wh-類,則不可用it代替
We all consider what you said to be unbelievable.
我們都認為你所說的是不可信的.
We discovered what we had learned to be valuable.
我們發現我們所學到的東西都是有價值的.
Can you tell me if there any shop here?
你能告訴我這裡有商店嗎?
形容詞的賓語從句
有些形容詞具有動詞的含義,所以也可以帶一個賓語從句,例如;
  1. 1. I am sorry I am late.
  2. I am glad that you can join us.
  3. Are you sure his answer is right?
賓語從句
常用來引導賓語從句的形容詞有: sure,certain,glad,please,happy,sorry,afraid,satisfied,surprised
I am sure I will pass the exam.
我確信我會通過考試.
I am sorry that I have troubled you so long.
很抱歉我這麼長時間在打擾你.
He is glad that Li Ming went to see him when he was ill.
他很高興在他生病的時候李明能去看望他.
不省略引導詞that
當that作learn,suggest,explain,agree,wonder,prove,mean,state,feel,hold等動詞的賓語時;
當賓語從句較長時;
當主語狀語置於主句尾,賓語從句之前時;
當主語謂語動詞(包括非謂語動詞)與賓語從句之間有插入語時;
當一個動詞帶有兩個或兩個以上賓語從句時,此時第一個that可以省略,第二個that不可以省略;
當賓語從句中的主語是this,that或this,that做主語的定語時;
當賓語從句是雙賓語中的直接賓語時;
當賓語從句的主語是非謂語動詞或主語從句時;
當主語中的謂語動詞是固定片語時;
當賓語從句有it做其先行詞時;
在直接引語中,轉述分句把賓語從句隔開時.
當that在從句中充當主語時
時態和語序
當主句為現在時或將來時,賓語從句的時態一般不受主句的時態所影響.
當主句為過去時
①從句用一般過去時或過去進行時表示與主句謂語動詞動作同時發生
I only knew he was studying in a western country,but I didn』t know which country he was in.
我只知道他當時在西方的一個國家讀書,可不知道是哪個國家.
He asked me if I was reading the story The Old Man and the Sea when he was in.
他問我他進來的時候我是否正在讀《老人與海》.
②從句過去完成時表示該動作發生在主句謂語動作之前
He told me that he had told Mary about the meeting already.
他告訴我他已經把有關會議的事情告訴了Mary.
③從句謂語用過去將來時表示該動作發生在主句謂語動作之後
The reporter asked if the government would take necessary measures to put down the to-do.
記者問政府是否會採取必要的措施鎮壓騷亂.
④如果從句是一個客觀真理,那麼從句的時態不根據主句的時態而變化
The teacher said that the moon goes around the earth yesterday.
老師昨天說月亮圍著地球轉.
⑤當賓語從句的引導詞是who,which,what,when,where,how,why等表疑問時,不能按正常語序安排,經常將這類引導詞置於句首
Who do you think the public might choose as their favorite singer this year
你認為今年公眾會選誰為他們最喜歡的歌手.
  1. 無論任何時候都為陳述語序.

2版本二

學習賓語從句要抓住三要素:引導詞、語序和時態。
  1. 1.引導詞
1.從句為陳述句,常選擇引導詞that或將that省略,直接與主句相連。
2.從句為一般疑問句,常選擇引導詞if或whether。在 whether … or not 結構中不能用 if 替換。
3.從句為特殊疑問句,常選擇what,when,where,which,who,how等疑問代詞、疑問副詞作引導詞。 注意:當who為主語時,句式為:who+謂語+其他。
  1. 從句的引導詞有很多,如:say, think, wish , hope, see, believe, agree, expect, hear , feel等。
  2. 2. 判斷時態情況
1.主句是一般現在時,從句為各種時態。
2.主句是一般過去時,從句為各種相應過去時態。 注意:從句描繪客觀事實,用一般現在時。
3.關係代詞:that,who,whom,whose,which
: 1. The teacher told the children that the sun____ round.
  1. was B. is C. were D. are
2. I believe that our team____ the basketball match.
  1. win B. won C. will win D. wins
3. I don』t know____ to visit the old man.
  1. whether B. if C. that D. who
4.The soldiers soon reached( )was once an old temple( )the villagers used as a school.
  1. which;where B.what;which C.where;which D.what;where
答:選B,動詞reach後接賓語從句,從句缺少賓語,where不可,which引導賓語從句時表疑問含義「哪一個…」而此句中並非疑問含義,不知道哪一座廟宇,而是用what從句表陳述含義,意「過去的一座舊廟宇」;temple後為對其修飾的定語從句,用關係代詞which代替,並在從句中作動詞used的賓語,use sth. as…「把…用作…」。
賓語從句用作賓語。如:
Do you know where he lives
定語從句相當於一個形容詞,用於修飾前面的名詞。如:
The student who answered the question was John. 回答問題的學生是John.
This is the man whom he is looking for.
Do you know the girl who is in red?
  1. 3. 賓語從句的用法
1.that引導賓語從句無意義,不充當句子成分常省略。但下列情況除外:
①.介詞賓語從句的that不能省略。
②. and連接的兩個從句,兩個從句的that不能省略。
He told me that he had two sons and that they both had gone to college.
③.在動詞+it+賓語補足語+賓語從句結構中,that不省略。
I heard it said that he had gone abroad
We found it impossible that he could finish it in such a short time
  1. Whether,if 引導賓語從句:兩詞可互換,但是下列情形除外:
①.whether從句中有or not
②.whether從句做介詞賓語
Everything depends on whether you agree with us
3.許多帶複合賓語的句子,賓語從句經常移到句子後部,而用it做形式賓語。結構是:
主語 + 動詞 + it + 形容詞/名詞等賓語補足語 + 賓語從句
We think it wrong that he told a lie to everyone.
①.賓語從句的語序要用陳述句語序。
False: He is wondering when can he finish this difficult job.
Right: He is wondering when he can finish this difficult job.
②. 有時候可以用it 作形式賓語,而把真正的賓語從句放在後面。
Bad: I thought that he could finish this job in just two hours impossible.
Good: I thought it impossible that he could finish this job in just two hours.
Bad: He left whether we should continue this project to my judgment.
Good: He left it to my judgment whether we should continue this project.
③. 帶有賓語從句的複合句的否定形式一般是否定主句。
Bad: I think he doesn』t like the English teacher.
Good: I don』t think he likes the English teacher.
④. 主句一般過去時態,從句也要用過去時態;具體細節請看第一部分。
False: He wanted to know why he is crying in the corner.
Right: He wanted to know why he was crying in the corner.

3版本三

賓語從句,在複合就叫,位於及物動詞后。
eg.
Tell him which class you are in .
Do you know what he likes?
註:
主句謂語過去時,從句相應過去時;
He answered that he was listening to me.
主句謂語現在時,從句時態任所需;
eg. He says (that) he will leave a message on my desk.
They know (that) he is working hard.
具體過去永不變,真理格言現在時;
eg.He told me that he was born in 1980.
Father told me that practice makes perfect .
(2)完成反意問句
在think / believe / suppose / guess / imagine / expect等動詞後跟賓語從句否定式時,應轉移到主句上去,完成反意問句時,應與從句主、謂保持一致。(註: 否定前移的條件是,主句主語是第一人稱)
eg. I don't think you are right,are you
I don't believe they have finished their work yet,have they
(3)運用虛擬語氣
在表示:
建議 suggest 、advise、propose;
要求demand 、desire、request;
決定 decide;
命令 order、command、require;
堅決主張 insist;
等動詞後跟賓語從句,用(should)+v.(虛擬語氣)
eg. I suggested that you(should)study hard.
He ordered that we should go out at once.
(4)賓語從句後置
如果賓語從句後有賓語補語,用it作形式賓語,把賓語從句後置
eg.You may think it strange that he would live there.
(5)that不可省略
賓語從句that常可省略,但在以下情況下不能省略
A.當主句謂語動詞帶有兩個或兩個以上賓語從句時,可以省略第一個that,其他不能省略。
eg.I believe(that)you have done your best and thatthings will get better.
B.當it作形式賓語時
eg.She made it clear that she had nothing to do with him.
C.當賓語從句前置時
eg.That our team will win,I believe.

4版本四

一、定義和例句分析
賓語從句就是一個句子作動詞或介詞的賓語。
A 作動詞的賓語:
I heard the news.
主語謂語動詞名詞作賓語
I heard that he would come here later on.
主語謂語動詞一個句子作賓語---賓語從句
B 作介詞的賓語:
He said nothing about the plan.
主語謂語動詞代詞作動詞的賓語介詞名詞作介詞的賓語
He said nothing about who broke the window last night.
主語謂語動詞代詞作動詞的賓語介詞 一個句子作介詞的賓語
  1. 二、複合句的構成
帶有賓語從句的複合句就是用連接詞把一個主句和一個賓語從句連接在一起。連接詞有:that(可省略),what,who,when,where,why,which,if,whether,how.
1 He suggested (that) we should clean the corridor every day.
賓語
2 He told me (that) he would leave Dalian airport at 8pm.
間接賓語直接賓語
3 He told me where he was going to travel that summer.
間接賓語直接賓語
4 He wanted to know what the manager had said at the meeting.
who hadn』t passed the exam.
when she would leave this building.
why she cried last night.
where she was going to study.
which student was his partner in the short play.
if (whether) Tom could play basketball with him that morning.
how she managed to solve the problem.
why water flows from a high position to a lower position.
在例子4中,當主句是過去時態時(一般過去時,過去進行時,過去將來時,過去完成時),從句根據不同情況必須使用過去時態的一種,(大自然的現象和真理除外)。
5 He is wanting to know what I can cook for dinner.
who broke the window yesterday.
when I can have a holiday.
why I failed the exam yesterday.
where I should have dinner with my friend tonight.
which book is the best one.
if (whether) I have passed the exam.
how my cat escaped from the room last night.
在例子5中,當主語是現在時態時(一般現在時,現在進行時,一般將來時,現在完成時),從句可根據不同情況使用各種時態。
  1. 三、注意
A 賓語從句必須用陳述語序。
False: He is wondering when can he finish this difficult job.
Right: He is wondering when he can finish this difficult job.
B 有時候可以用it 作形式賓語,而把真正的賓語從句放在後面。
Bad: I thought that he could finish this job in just two hours impossible.
Good: I thought it impossible that he could finish this job in just two hours.
Bad: He left whether we should continue this project to my judgment.
Good: He left it to my judgment whether we should continue this project.
C 帶有賓語從句的複合句的否定形式一般是否定主句。
Bad: I think he doesn』t like the English teacher.
Good: I don』t think he likes the English teacher.
D 主句一般過去時態,從句也要用過去時態;具體細節請看第一部分。
False: He wanted to know why he is crying in the corner.
Right: He wanted to know why he was crying in the corner.
賓語從句的點點滴滴 賓語從句是英語複合句中的其中非常重要的從句之一。它是用一個句子做另一個句子的賓語,將這個句子叫做賓語從句。賓語從句做介詞或及物動詞的賓語。現在從下列三個方面總結歸納如下:
一,引導詞
A,由that 引導的陳述句性的賓語從句,在很多動詞如say,think,wish,hope,see,believe,agree,expect,hear,feel等動詞后。連詞that只起連接作用,在從句中不做句子的成分,也無辭彙意義,在口語中常被省略,但在大多數情況下還是以不省為好,特別是在筆語中。
例:I told him that he was wrong.
l在think,believe,suppose,expect等動詞引起的賓語從句中,有時謂語儘管是否定意義,卻不用否定形式,而將think 等動詞變為否定形式。
例:I don』t think you are right. (我認為你做的不對)
l在許多帶有複合賓語的句子中,that引導的賓語從句經常移到句子的後面,而用it做形式賓語。
例:We think it wrong that he told a lie to everyone (我認為他向每一個人撒謊是錯誤的)
B,由連詞if、 whether 引導的表示「是否…」的賓語從句。Whether,if 在從句中不做句子的成分,一般情況下,whether和if 可以替換。
例:I don』t know if/whether he will come tomorrow.
The teacher asked if/whether we had finished the experiment.
l在介詞後面的賓語從句中不用if引導
例:Everything depends on whether we have enough money。
l賓語從句中有or not時不用if引導.
例:I don』t know whether the movie star will come or not.
l和不定式連用作賓語時不用if引導.
例:Whether to go there or not hasn』t been decided.
C,由wh-引導的賓語從句。連接代詞who,whom,whose,what,which,和連接副詞when,where,why,how 等連接的賓語從句,它們在句中即有連接從句的作用,又在句中充當句子的成分。
例:Do you know which film they are talking about? (which做定語)
I don』t know where he lives. (where 做地點狀語)
二,賓語從句的語序,
賓語從句從句的語序必須是陳述語序,即連接詞+主語+謂語+其他成分
例:I believe that they will come soon.
He asked me whether I was a teacher.
They wanted to know what they can do for us.
二,賓語從句的時態。
賓語從句的時態受主句的限制,
既:主句是一般現在時態,從句根據實際情況而定。
主句是一般過去時態,從句用相應的過去的時態。如果從句的動作發生在主句之前,則從句要用過去完成時態。
例:
  1. She says that she is a student.
She said that she was a student.
  1. She says that she will fly to Japan in a week.
She said that she would fly to Japan in a week.
  1. She says that she has finished her homework already.
She said that she had finished her homework already.
  1. She says that she can sing a song in English.
She said that she could sing a song in English.
l如果賓語從句說的是客觀真理、自然現象或事實時,這時賓語從句要用一般現在時態。
例:The teacher said that the earth goes round the sun.
He told me that Japan is an island country.
lCould you tell me…是用來徵詢對方的意見,語氣委婉,並不表示過去。
例:Could you tell me when we will visit the Histury Museum
注意事項:
u由陳述句變成賓語從句時,要注意人稱的變化。
例:She said: 「I have been to England before.」
She said that she had been to England before.
She asked me: 「Do you like maths?」
She asked me if I liked maths.
u賓語從句與簡單句的交換。
由連接代詞和連接副詞引導的賓語從句,如果賓語從句的主語和主句的主語是同一個人時,可以用「疑問詞+不定式
」做賓語的簡單句結構。
例:I don』t know what I should do next.
I con』t know what to do next.
He didn』t know where he would live.
He didn』t know where to live.
DO SOME EXERCISES:
1.Can you see________
  1. what he』s reading B. what is he reading
  2. what does he read D. he reads what
2.Does Jack come from Japan? Do you know?(合併成一個句子)
Do you know_____Jack _____from Japan
3._What did your son say in the letter
_He told me that he___ the Disney would the next day
  1. will visit B. has visited
  2. is going to visit D. would visit
4.He didn』t know__________
  1. what』s the matter B.what the matter is
  2. what was the matter D. what the matter was
5.Somebody called you just now,but I didn』t know____
  1. who were they B. who they were
  2. who was it D. who it was
6.I want to know_____
  1. what is his name B. what』s his name
  2. that his name is D. what his name is
7.---Could you tell me ___she is looking for
---Her cousin,susan.
  1. that B.whose C .who D.which
8.---What are you searching the Internet for
---I』m trying to find out____.
  1. What is the difference between SARS and BIRDFLU
  2. How many persons have died in Iraq
  3. How to protect our environment
  4. Why is our Chinese team be able to beat Korea
9. Do you know___________?(誰正在唱歌)
10. Do you know___________?(她正在和誰談話)
11. Do you know___________?(昨天發生了什麼事)
The keys: 1 A.2 if,comes.3D. 4 D. 5 D. 6 D. 7 C. 8 B
9 who is singing
10 who she is talking with
11 what happened yesterday

5版本五

  1. 關係代詞:
  2. 1.that指代人或物,在句中作主語或賓語
  3. 2.which指代物,在句中作主語或賓語(特殊:指代前面的一整件事
  4. 3.who 、whom指代人,分別作主語和賓語
  5. 由關係代詞whose引導的定語從句:
whose用作名詞的限定語,whose后一定有名詞。
  1. 由關係副詞when、where、why引導的定語從句:
如果句子中不缺少主語和賓語時,則考慮用關係副詞。
1、when在從句中作時間狀語。when(on which)
2、where在從句中作地點狀語。where(in which)
3、why在從句中作原因狀語。why(for which)
  1. 注意!
1、用which不用what的情況:
(1)「逗號」后不用that用which。(2)介詞后不用that用which
2、用that不用which的情況:
(1)先行詞為不定代詞(各種thing 例:something。nothing)
(2)先行詞前有最高級、序數詞、the only 、the very 等修飾時
3、特殊情況:
(1)way(方式,方法)+(1)that
(2)in which
(3)什麼都用
例:I hit way (that/in which)you speak to your parents
(2)當句子中不缺主語、賓語時,出現「point、condition、stage、case」等詞後用where。
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