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過去將來完成進行時

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1解釋

用法
I/we should have been working.
將來完成進行時與將來完成時的關係和現在完成進行時與現在完成時的關係一樣。過去將來完成進行時表示動作從過去某一時間開始一直延續到過去將來某一時間。動作是否繼續下去,視上下文而定。

2注意

即在以下情況下可以用將來完成進行時而不用將來完成時:
1 動作本身就是連續的:
By the end of the month he will have been living/working/studying here for ten years.
到了月底他在這裡居住/工作/學習就滿十年了。
2 一種經常進行的動作被表示為連續的動作:By the end of this month he will have been training horses/climbing mountains for twenty years.
到了這個月底他馴馬/登山就滿 20年了。
但是如果提到所馴馬匹或所攀登的山峰的數目,或用任何方式把動作分割為一次又一次的動作,就必須用將來完成時:
By the end of the month he will have trained 600 horses/climbed 50 mountains.
到本月底,他馴服的馬就有600匹/攀登的山峰就有50座了。
將來完成時用來表示在將來某一時間以前已經完成或一直持續的動作。
連用用法
經常與before+將來時間或by+將來時間連用,也可與before或by the time引導的現在時的從句連用。
1) 構成will / be going to do sth.
2) 概念
a. 狀態完成:表示某事繼續到將來某一時為止一直有的狀態。
b. 動作完成:表示將來某一時或另一個將來的動作之前,已經完成的動作或一獲得的經驗。
They will have been married for 20 years by then.
You will have reached Shanghai by this time tomorrow.
將來完成時的構成
將來完成時的構成是由"shall/will + have +過去分詞"構成的。
Before long he will have forgotten all about the matter.
不久他就會全然忘記這件事的。
He is somebody now. He will not have remembered his old classmates.
他現在是一個有身份的人了,他可能不會記得老同學了。
Will you have known Kevin for 10 years next month?
到下個月你認識凱文該有10年了吧?

3將來完成時的用法

過去將來完成時表示從過去觀點看將來某時某動作會業已完成。這個時態用得相對比較少,通常主要用於轉述方面,即用於間接引語中。如:
She said she』d have finished her exams by then. 她說那時她會已經考完試了。
The party would have arrived by four o』clock. 這一行人將於4時前到達。
She said she』d have finished her exams by then. 她說那時她會已經考完試了。
過去完成時用於虛擬語氣中
若表示與過去事實相反的虛擬語氣,此時條件從句的謂語用過去完成時(had+過去分詞),而主句謂語則通常用過去完成時(would+have+過去分詞),當然,主句謂語也可根據情況使用「should (could, might)+have+過去分詞」。如:
If I'd left sooner, I'd have been on time. 要是我早點動身,我就準時到了。(但我動身太遲了)
If we had found him earlier we could have saved his life. 要是我們當時早點找到他的話,我們就可以救活他。(可惜我們找到他太晚了)
If I had known that you were coming I would have met you at the air-port. 要是我早知道你要來的話,我就會在機場接你了。
If he had lived, some day Michael would have done something important. 假定麥克爾當時在世的話,他本可做出了不起的事。
If I had known how he felt, I would never have let him adopt those children. 我要是知道他的想法,我是決不會讓他領養那些孩子的。
He would have forgotten the boy』s birthday if you hadn』t reminded him. 要不是你提醒他,他會忘記這男孩的生日的。
Our lives would have been greatly impoverished if we had not known our dear friend. 若不是得識我們這位好朋友,我們的生活一定十分不妙。
「would + have + 過去分詞」的情態用法
would 後接完成式除用於構成過去將來完成時外,它還有其情態動詞用法的一面。如:
Only somebody with a small mind would have refused to help. 只有心胸狹窄的人才不肯幫助別人。(表推測)
Few men would have bared their soul to a woman as he had. 很少有男人能像他一樣對一個女人敞開心扉。(表懷疑)
I』m surprised you didn』t like the film. I would have thought it was just your kind of thing. 你不喜歡這部電影,這讓我感到奇怪。我本來還覺得正對你的路呢。(表過去的想法)
My father would have driven me to Cornwall, but we decided it would be quicker by train. 父親原本要開車送我去康沃爾,但我們還是覺得坐火車更快。(表過去的想法)
The scar added interest to a face that otherwise would have appeared too bland. 這處傷疤為本顯得平淡無奇的臉增添了些吸引力。(表示未曾發生的情況)
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