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集合名詞(英語:Collective noun)是語言學上的一個專有名詞,意指一種可用來指稱一群對象的字,而這些對象,可以是人、動物、或是一群概念等事物。

1 集合名詞 -定義

集合名詞(英語:Collective noun)是語言學上的一個專有名詞,意指一種可用來指稱一群對象的字,而這些對象,可以是人、動物、或是一群概念等事物。舉例而言,在英語中,「一群獅子」可稱為「a pride of lions」,此時「pride」為一個集合名詞。

2 集合名詞 -分類

集合名詞分為以下幾類,並分別簡述其有關用法特點:

第一類
形式為單數,但意義可以用為單數或複數這類集合名詞包括family(家庭Y: 'Times New Roman'">family(,team(隊),class(班),audience(聽眾)等,其用法特點為:若視為整體,表示單數意義;若考慮其個體成員,表示複數意義。比較並體會:His family is large. 他的家是個大家庭。His family are all waiting for him. 他的一家人都在等他。This class consists of 45 pupils. 這個班由45個學生組成。This class are reading English now. 這個班的學生在讀英語。
這個班的學生在讀英語。

第二類
形式為單數,但意義永遠為複數這類集合名詞包括cattle(牛,牲畜)cattle(,people(人),police(警察)等,其用法特點為:只有單數形式, 但卻表示複數意義,用作主語時謂語用複數;不與 a(n) 連用,但可與the連用(連用)。如:People will laugh at you. 人們會笑你的。The police are looking for him. 警察在找他。Many cattle were killed for this. 就因為這個原因宰了不少牲畜。註:表示牲畜的頭數,用單位詞 head(單複數同形)。如:five head of cattle 5頭牛,fifty (head of ) cattle 50頭牛

第三類
形式為複數,意義也為複數這類集合名詞包括goods(貨物), clothes(衣服)等,其用法特點是:只有複數形式()當然也表示複數意義,用作主語時謂語也用複數),但通常不與數詞連用。如:Clothes dry slowly in the rainy season. 衣服在雨季不易干。Such clothes are very expensive. 那樣的衣服很貴。If goods are not well made you should complain to the manufacturer. 如果貨物質量不好,則理應向製造商提出控訴。

第四類
形式為單數,意義也為單數這類集合名詞包括baggage / luggage(行李), clothing(衣服), furniture(傢具), machinery(機器), poetry(詩), scenery(風景), scenery(), jewelry(珠寶), equipment(設備)等, 其用法特點為:是不可數名詞,只用單數形式,不用不定冠詞(當然更不能用數詞),沒有複數形式。如:Our clothing protects us from [against] the cold. 我們的衣服可以禦寒。<>Have you checked all your baggage? 你所有的行李都託運了嗎?The thief stole all her jewelry. 小偷把她所有的首飾都偷走了。The hospital has no decent equipment. 這家醫院沒有像樣的設備。The Tang Dynasty is thought of as the high summer of Chinese poetry. 人們認為唐朝是中國詩歌的全盛時期。註:machinery, poetry, jewelry, scenery等相應的個體可數名詞是 machine, poem, jewel, scene等。如:a poem / a piece of poetry 一首詩many machines / much machinery / many pieces of machinery 許多機器

第五類
補充幾個常考的集合名詞除上面提到的四類集合名詞外,以下幾個集合名詞也應重點注意:
1. hair(頭髮,毛髮)
指全部頭髮或毛髮時,為集合名詞(不可數);指幾根頭髮或毛髮時,為個體名詞(可數)。如:My hair has grown very long. 我的頭髮已長得很長了。The police found two hairs there. 警察在那兒找到了兩根頭髮。
2. mankind(人類)
人是一個不可數的集合名詞,不用複數形式,也不連用冠詞。如:This is an invention that benefits mankind. 這是一項造福人類的發明。Mankind has its own problems. 人類有自己的問題。註:mankind 表示「mankind 人(類)」時,雖不可數,但有時卻可以表示複數意義,尤其是當其表語是複數時。如:Mankind are intelligent animals. 人是理智的動物。
3. fruit(水果)
作為集合名詞,它通常是不可數的。如:He doesn』t eat much fruit. 他不大吃水果。He is growing fruit in the country. 他在鄉下種水果。但是,當要表示種類時,它可視為可數名詞,即a fruit 指一種水果,fruits 指多種水果。比較:fruits Some fruits have thick skins. 有些水果皮很厚。The potato is a vegetable, not a fruit. 土豆是一種蔬菜,而不是一種水果。

3 集合名詞 -主謂一致問題

一、某些有生命的集合名詞(表示人或者動物),本身有單/複數之分。其為單數時,若作主語,則謂語可用單數/複數。主要依據說話者強調的重點而定,若強調許多個體,謂語用複數;若強調一個整體,則用單數。其為複數時,不言而喻,謂語必須用複數。注意:此類名詞單複數的意義並不完全相同,漢譯時一定要當心。如army(一國之軍隊),armies(多國部隊);couple(一對夫婦),couples(多對夫婦);等。常見的此類集合名詞有:army,association,audience,band,board,cast,clan,class,clique,club,college,committee,company,community,congregation(教民,會眾),council(市議會,理事會),couple,crew,crowd,enemy,family,firm,fleet,flock,folk,gang,government,group,jury,kingdom ,mob(暴民,暴徒),navy,opposition,orchestra,pack,pair,party,personnel,profession,population,staff,school,team,tribe(部落,部民), union,university等。

1.The staff is/are hardworking.

2.The audience were moved to tears.

3.The lecturer draws large audiences.

4.The whole school was punished.

5.The class consists of 40 students.

6.This class are diligent.

7.The whole profession fight tooth andnail against it.

8.One tenth of the population of Egypt is/are Christian.

二、某些有生命的集合名詞,本身無複數形式,作主語時,謂語通常用複數。常見的此類集合名詞有:cattle,clergy,faculty(教職工), herd,mankind,military,militia(民團、民兵), people,police,poultry(家禽),swine(豬),vermin,womankind等。

9.There are three people waving at us.

10.The police haven't arrived yet.

11.There are verm in here.

12.Some people are never satisfied.

13.The police/military have surrounded the building.

【注】people作民族講時有複數形式。如: There are 56 peoples in China.

三、某些有生命的集合名詞,本身無複數形式,其後可跟單/複數謂語動詞。常見的此類集合名詞有:aristocracy,bourgeoisie(資產階級),church,elite(精英),gentry,intelligentsia(知識分子),laity(外行),livestock,majority,minority,proletariat(無產階級),offspring,public,swarm,youth等。

14.The youth today is /are better off than we used to be.

15.Her offspring is /are like her in every respect.

16.The intelligentsia are hailing Ranson as their spokesman.

【注】youth除了作集合名詞以外,還可以作可數和不可數名詞。如:

Youth is the tim e for action;age is the tim e for repose.

Som e youths don't like jazz.

四、某些表示國家、公司、機構、運動隊等名稱的專有名詞也可當作集合名詞使用,其後通常跟單/複數謂語動詞。常見的此類集合名詞有:Arsenal,BBC,Congress,Krem lin, Liverpool,Macm illan,Netherlands,Parliament,Pentagon,Vatican(梵蒂岡),White House等。

17.Arsenal is /are playing well in this season.

18.Macmillan have /has made a good profit this year.

19.The Seventy-First Congress was predominantly Republican.

20.The Netherlands has /have a monarchy.

21.The BBC is showing the program on Saturday.

22.Liverpool is leading 1—0.

23.Liverpool are attacking again.

五、某些無生命的集合名詞(表示物)作主語時,通常被看成不可數名詞,謂語用單數。常見的此類集合名詞有:aircraft,baggage, clothing,crockery,cutlery(刀剪,餐具),equipment,foliage(樹葉),footwear,furniture,glassware,hardware,hosiery,jewellery,luggage,machinery,merchandize,poetry,pottery,silverware,stationery,underclothing,underwear,vegetation,weaponry等。

24.All the furniture in my room is new.

25.The merchandize has arrived undamaged.

26.There is not much vegetation in deserts.

27.The equipment for the factory hasbeen shipped.

28.Warm clothing is necessary in cold climates.

29.The machinery is driven by electrici-ty.

4 集合名詞 -參考資料

[1] 新浪教育 http://edu.sina.com.cn/en/2002-12-17/7986.html

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