標籤:外語英語學習英語語法

非謂語動詞是指在句子中不是謂語的動詞,主要包括不定式、動名詞和分詞(現在分詞和過去分詞),即動詞的非謂語形式。非謂語動詞除了不能獨立作謂語外,可以承擔句子的其他成分。

1定義

在句子中充當除謂語以外的各種句子成分的動詞形式,叫做非謂語動詞(the Non-Finite Verbs)。非謂語動詞也是動詞的一種,他們有著動詞的其他特點,可以充當主語、賓語、狀語等。非謂語動詞與謂語動詞是相對的概念。

2形式功能

動名詞
動名詞:
動名詞既具有動詞的一些特徵,又具有名詞的句法功能。
一般式
(謂語動詞同時發生)
doing
being done
完成式
(謂語動詞發生之前)
having done
having been done
動名詞的形式:Ving
否定式:not + 動名詞
1.一般式:
Seeing is believing. 眼見為實。
2.被動式:
He came to the party without being invited.他未被邀請就來到了晚會。
3.完成式:
We remembered having seen the film. 我們記得看過這部電影。
4.完成被動式:
He forgot having been taken to Guangzhou when he was five years old.
他忘記五歲時曾被帶到廣州去過。
5.否定式:not + 動名詞
I regret not following his advice. 我後悔沒聽他的勸告。
6.複合結構:物主代詞(或名詞所有格)+ 動名詞
He suggested our trying it once again. 他建議我們再試一次。
His not knowing English troubled him a lot.
他不懂英語給他帶來許多麻煩。
動名詞的句法功能:(1)作主語:
Reading aloud is very helpful. 朗讀是很有好處的。
Collecting stamps is interesting. 集郵很有趣。
當動名詞短語作主語時常用it作形式主語。
It's no use quarrelling.爭吵是沒用的。
2.作表語:
In the ant city,the queen's job is laying eggs.
在螞蟻王國,蟻后的工作是產卵。
3.作賓語:
They haven't finished building the dam. 他們還沒有建好大壩。
We have to prevent the air from being polluted.
我們必須阻止空氣被污染。
注意動名詞既可作動詞賓語也可作介詞賓語,如上面兩個例句。此外,動名詞作賓語時,若跟有賓語補足語,則常用形式賓語it,例如:
We found it no good making fun of others. 我們發現取笑他人不好。
要記住如下動詞及短語只跟動名詞作賓語:
enjoy,finish,suggest,avoid(避免),excuse,delay,imagine,keep,miss,consider,admit(承認),deny(否認),mind,permit,forbid,practise,risk(冒險),appreciate(感激),be busy,be worth,feel like,can't stand,can't help(情不自禁地),think of,dream of,be fond of,prevent…(from),keep …from,stop…(from),protect…from,set about,be engaged in,spend…(in),succeed in,be used to,look forward to,object to,pay attention to,insist on,feel like
4.作定語:
He can't walk without a walking-stick. 他沒有拐杖不能走路。
Is there a swimming pool in your school? 你們學校有游泳池嗎?
5.作同位語:
The cave,his hiding-place is secret. 那個山洞,他藏身的地方很秘密。
His habit,listening to the news on the radio remains unchanged.
他收聽收音機新聞節目的習慣仍未改變。
過去分詞
過去分詞只有一種形式:規則動詞由動詞原形加詞尾-ed構成。不規則動詞的過去分詞沒有統一的規則
要求,要一一記住。
1.過去分詞作定語:
Our class went on an organized trip last Monday. 上周一我們班開展了一次有組織的旅行。
Those selected as committee members will attend the meeting. 當選為委員的人將出席這次會。
注意當過去分詞是單詞時,一般用於名詞前,如果是過去分詞短語,就放在名詞的後面。過去分詞做
定語相當於一個被動語態的定語從句。
2.過去分詞作表語:
The window is broken. 窗戶破了。
They were frightened at the sad sight. 他們對眼前悲慘的景象感到很害怕。
注意:be + 過去分詞,如果表示狀態是系表結構,如果表示被動的動作是被動語態。區別:
The window is broken.(系表)
The window was broken by the boy.(被動)
有些過去分詞是不及物動詞構成的,不表示被動,只表示完成。如:
boiled water(開水) fallen leaves(落葉)
newly arrived goods(新到的貨) the risen sun(升起的太陽)
the changed world(變了的世界)
這類過去分詞有:gone,come,fallen,risen,changed,arrived,returned,passed等。
3.過去分詞作賓語補足語:
I heard the song sung several times last week.
上周我聽見這首歌被唱了好幾次。
有時過去分詞做with短語中的賓語補足語:
With the work done,they went out to play. 工作做完了,他們出去玩去了。
4.過去分詞作狀語:
Praised by the neighbours,he became the pride of his parents.
受到鄰居們的表揚,他成為父母的驕傲。(表示原因)
Once seen,it can never be forgotten.
一旦它被看見,人們就忘不了。(表示時間)
Given more time,I'll be able to do it better.
如果給予更多的時間,我能做得更好。(表示條件)
Though told of the danger,he still risked his life to save the boy.
雖然被告之有危險,他仍然冒生命危險去救那個孩子。(表示讓步)
Filled with hopes and fears,he entered the cave. 心中充滿了希望與恐懼,他走進山洞。
相同點
1.如果是及物動詞都可與賓語連用,例如:
They built a garden.
They suggested building a garden.
2.都可以被狀語修飾:
The suit fits him very well.
The suit used to fit him very well.
3.都有主動與被動,「體」式(一般式;進行式;完成式)的變化。例如:
He was punished by his parents.(謂語動詞被動語態)
He avoided being punished by his parents.(動名詞的被動式)
We have written the composition.(謂語動詞的完成時)
Having written the composition,we handed it in.(現在分詞的完成式)
4.都可以有邏輯主語
They started the work at once.(謂語動詞的邏輯主語)
The boss ordered them to start the work.(動詞不定式的邏輯主語)
We are League members.(謂語動詞的主語)
We being League member,the work was well done. (現在分詞的邏輯主語)
(5) 否定式一般用not,並且放在非謂語動詞之前

不同點

1.非謂語動詞可以有名詞作用(如動詞不定式和動名詞),在句中做主語、賓語、表語。
2.非謂語動詞可以有形容詞作用(如動詞不定式和分詞),在句中做定語、表語或賓語補足語。
3.非謂語動詞可以有副詞作用(如動詞不定式和分詞),在句中作狀語。
4.謂語動詞在句中作謂語,受主語的人稱和數的限制;非謂語動詞在句中不能單獨作謂語,它不受主語的人稱和數的限制。
(5)英語中不能單獨做句子的謂語。
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