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1 頻度副詞 -定義

  usually/ sometimes/always/often等詞在英文中被稱為「頻度副詞」,是用來表示動作頻率的,但程度上有別。常見頻度副詞按頻率大小排列如下:

  always(100%)>usually(80%)>often(60%)>sometimes(40%)>seldom(20%)>

  never(0%)

2 頻度副詞 -頻度副詞的位置

  ◆頻度副詞在句中習慣上位於be動詞、助動詞等之後,行為動詞之前。

  1. 在be動詞之後。如:

  She is sometimes very busy. 她有時很忙。

  2. 在第一個助動詞或情態動詞之後。如:

  I will never forget this lesson. 我將永遠忘不了這一課。

  3. 在實義動詞之前。如:

  We often go there. 我們常去那兒。

  ◆sometimes也可放在句首、句中或句末,often也可放在句末(一般不放在句首)。如:

  Sometimes she writes to me. =She writes to me sometimes. 她有時候給我寫信。

  She writes to me often. 她經常給我寫信。

  ◆如果有兩個助動詞,頻度副詞通常放在第一個助動詞後面。如:

  We have never been invited to one of their parties. 他們聚會,一次也沒邀請過我們。

  She must sometimes have wanted to run away. 她有時候一定想到過要逃走。

3 頻度副詞 -頻度副詞的用法

  ◆always 頻率最高,表示動作重複、狀態繼續,表示「一直、總是」,其反義詞為never。always等與not連用時,表示部分否定。如:

  The rich are not always happy. 有錢的人並不總是快樂的。

  如果要變為否定句,應將always改為never才能全部否定。如:

  Li Ping is always late for school. 李平上學總是遲到。

  Li Ping is never late for school. 李平上學從不遲到。(全部否定)

  Li Ping is not always late for school. 李平上學不總是遲到。(部分否定)

  頻度副詞通常和一般現在時連用,表示動作發生的頻率。但always與進行時連用時,並不強調動作正在進行,而是表示讚歎、厭煩等情緒如:

  He is always thinking of others. 他總是想著別人。(讚歎)

  She is always asking silly questions. 她總是問些愚蠢的問題。(厭煩)

  The boy is always asking for money. 這個小男孩總是要錢。(厭煩)

  ◆usually意為「通常」,表示習慣性動作或狀態,很少有例外。如:

  We usually go to school at seven in the morning. 我們通常在早上七點上學。

  My mother and I usually go shopping on Sundays. 我和媽媽通常在星期天去買東西。

  ◆Often意為「經常,時常」,表示反覆性的動作或狀態,中間有間斷,不如usually那麼頻繁。其反義詞是seldom。often在句尾時常被very或quite修飾。如:

  It often rains here in April. 這兒四月份常下雨。

  he boys often eat noodles and the girls sometimes eat them. 男生經常吃麵條,女生有時吃。

  I often chat with my friends under the big tree. 我經常在這棵大樹下和朋友聊天。

  He writes to his friends quite often. 他常給他的朋友寫信。

  ◆sometimes意為「有時」,頻率不及often,表示動作偶爾發生,間斷時間較長。其位置比較靈活,放在句首、句中、句末都可。如:

  Sometimes we go to the cinema and at other times we go for a walk.

  有時我們去看電影,有時我們去散步。

  I sometimes watch TV in the evening. 我有時晚上看電視。

  My father has lunch in the factory sometimes. 我父親有時在工廠吃午飯。

  ◆seldom意為「很少」;never意為「從不」。這兩個副詞表示否定意義,動作幾乎不會發生。如:

  He seldom eats breakfast. 他很少吃早餐。

  The little girl seldom goes out. 這個小女孩很少外出。

  I will never forget your kindness. 我永遠忘不了你的好意。

  The boys never eat chocolate and the girls seldom eat it. 男生從不吃巧克力,女生很少吃。

  Btter late than never. [諺語] 遲到(遲做)總比不來(不做)好。

  ◆hardly具有否定意義,表示「幾乎不、簡直不」,除非特殊情況,否則不會發生。如:

  The boy is so young that he could hardly understand it. 這個孩子太小了,不可能懂得這件事。

  ◆對上述頻度副詞提問時,用how often。如:

  I write to my brother sometimes.

  How often do you write to your brother?

頻度副詞位於助動詞之前兩種情況

  1.為了表示強調,頻度副詞有時也可位於動詞be、助動詞、情態動詞之前,此時助動詞等應重讀。如:

  She always was late. 她老是遲到。

  I never can remember. 我永遠也記不住。

  2. 在簡略答語中,當頻度副詞與動詞be、助動詞或情態動詞位於句末時,頻度副詞必須前置。

  —「Philip is late again.」 —「Yes, he always is.」 —「菲利普又遲到了。」—「是的,他總是遲到。」

  — 「Can you park your car near the shops?」 —「Yes. I usually can.」

  — 「你可以在商店附近停車嗎?」—「是的,通常可以。」

頻度副詞在否定句中的用法

  在否定句中,有的頻度副詞位於否定詞之前或之後均可,而有的頻度副詞則必須位於否定詞之後,而還有的頻度副詞卻必須要位於否定詞。大致情況如下:

  1. 頻度副詞usually和often可位於否定詞not之前或之後。

  他們不常開這樣的晚會。

  正:They don』t often hold such parties.

  正:They often don』t hold such parties.

  星期日我們一般不在9點以前起床。

  正:We don』t usually get up before nine on Sundays.

  正:We usually don』t get up before nine on Sundays.

  在否定句中,頻度副詞用於句中或句首,有時但會導致意思不同。

  He doesn』t usually sleep for two days at a time. 他很少一連睡兩天。

  Usually he doesn』t sleep for two days at a time. 他連續兩天不睡覺是常事。

  2. 頻度副詞always總是位於否定詞之後,不可位於否定句之前。

  Things are not always what they seem to be. 外表往往是靠不住的。

  Silence must not always be read as consent. 沉默並不見得一定意味著同意。

  3. 頻度副詞sometimes總是位於否定詞之前,不可位於否定詞之後。

  Jim is sometimes not very punctual. 吉姆有時不太準時。

  Debbie is sometimes not responsible for what she does. 黛比有時對她所做的事不負責任。

頻度副詞位於句末的用法

  1.sometimes常可用於句末。 如:

  We all get into trouble sometimes. 我們有時都會遇到麻煩。

  You can』t work all the time,it does you good to go out and enjoy yourself sometimes.

  你不能總是工作,有時出去放鬆一下會對你有好處。

  2. often有時可置於句末,但通常會帶有very, quite, fairly, more, so等修飾語。如:

  We』ve been there quite often. 經常去那裡。

  When I was young, I used to play tennis very often. 我年輕時經常打網球。

  Diana used to travel a lot. These days she doesn』t go away so often.

  娜過去經常旅遊。最近她不常出門了。

  We're not exactly on intimate terms, but we see each other fairly often.

  雖算不上關係密切,但還常見面。

  註:有時也可不帶修飾語,但主要見於否定句或疑問句。 如:

  He writes to me often. 他經常給我寫信。

  Do you come here often? 你常來這兒嗎?

  I don』t come here often. 我不常來這兒。

  3. usually有時也用於句末,其前不用修飾語。

  I』m not late, usually. 我通常不遲到。

  I get paid on Fridays usually. 我通常在星期五領工資。

  4.seldom 一般不用於句末,除非其前帶有only,very等修飾。

  We go out very seldom. 我們絕少外出。

  I play basketball very seldom indeed. 我很少打籃球。

  5. always一般不用於句末,偶爾用於句末,此時它不表法「總是」,而表示「永遠」。

  I』ll love you always. 我將永遠愛你。

  另外,有時用於句末是因為句子有所省略的緣故。

  Generally they walked together on Sunday, but not always.

  他們一般在星期日一起散步,但並不總是如此。

  句中的but not always=but they didn』t always walk together on Sunday。

頻度副詞位於句首的用法

  1. sometimes常可用於句首。

  Sometimes she comes late. 有時她來得晚。

  Sometimes she didn』t agree with me. 有時她和我意見不一致。

  Sometimes we get a lot of rain in August. 有時在8月份雨水很大。

  2. often用於句首時,通常表示強調,且其前一般有quite, very修飾。

  Very often he comes in late. 他常常遲到。

  Quite often the phone rings when I』m in the bath. 電話經常在我洗澡時響。

  3.usually有時也用於句首,其前不用修飾語。

  Usually I get up early. 我平時起得早。

  Sometimes he comes by bus, but usually he comes by taxi.

  有時他坐公共汽車來,不過他通常還是打的來。

  Usually cooking pots have two small handles but pans have one long handle.

  通常地深底煮鍋有兩隻把手而平底鍋只有一個長長的把手。

  4.always一般不用於句首,除非是用在祈使句中。

  Always remember this. 請時刻記住這一點。

  Always look in the mirror before starting to drive. 一定要先看看反光鏡再開車。

  另外,never也可用於祈使句的句首。

  Never tell him the news. 千萬不要告訴他這消息。

  Never ask her about her marriage. 決不要問她結婚的事。

  5.在正式文體中,表示否定意義的副詞seldom, never可位於句首,但此時其後要用倒裝語序。

  Seldom has there been such a happy meeting. 過去很少有過這樣愉快的會議。

  Never did he think the book would be finished so soon. 他可沒想到這本書會這麼快看完

  另外,once a year (每年一次), twice a week (每周兩次), three times a day (一天三次), every Saturday afternoon(每星期六下午)等,這些時間狀語也表示頻率,它們可以和頻度副詞用在同一個句子中,表達上沒有重複。如:

  We usually go to the cinema four times a month. 我們通常一個月看四次電影。

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