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鵝媽媽童謠集

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鵝媽媽童謠最初是其他國家傳到英國的。 當中包含的民間故事在 1697 年被叫做「母親鵝的故事」, 且出現在短的吹牛大話或故事中。 這些故事在 1729 年被轉變為英國語。但是在那之後不久, 當約翰(可以稱得上是鵝媽媽童謠的創作人) 和他的公司已經發現出版這種書是有利潤的時候,他們決定出版收錄這些傳統詩的書。 他們給鵝媽媽童謠的曲子起一些適當而又無意義的名字。 這個 1791年的Newbery(約翰的姓) 版本是最早的《鵝媽媽童謠》,也是世界最早的兒歌集。它包含了五十二首詩,每首詩由一個有趣但是又不恰當的故事組成, 和每首以一個例子說明。

 

1 鵝媽媽童謠集 -童謠集

鵝媽媽童謠集(Mother Goose)是一部著名的英國童謠集,自17世紀末問世以來已經有過

鵝媽媽童謠集點擊查看大圖
多種版本,現在既被當作父母念給幼兒聽的最佳英語讀物之一,也是文化研究者的重要研究對象。

2 鵝媽媽童謠集 -簡介


關於真正的鵝媽媽童謠集究竟應該包含哪些歌謠,歷來說法不一,事實上也不可能有一個真正的定論,因為隨著歷史的推進,鵝媽媽童謠集的版本也不斷改變。
儘管經常被當作英國特色的典範,鵝媽媽童謠集最早並不是英國人的作品。1697年,法國作家佩羅出版了一本由八個民間故事組成的小冊子,並將它命名為Contes de ma mère l'Oye(Tales of Mother Goose)。這些故事於1729年被翻譯成英文。在這之後,一個英國人John Newbery發現出版類似的面向兒童市場的小冊子利潤可觀,於是他和同伴決定合作整理並出版一本民間流傳的童謠合輯。於是在1791年,鵝媽媽童謠集(Mother Goose's Melody)在英國正式出版,收錄了52首小詩,每一首都配有寓意和木版畫的插圖。這一版本現在已經是非常難得的珍品了。此後又出現過各種新的版本,集子中收錄的童謠數量也不斷增長,這些童謠產生的時間跨度達幾百年之久,有些甚至可以追溯到十四世紀。
多年以來,作為傳統的幼兒睡前讀物,鵝媽媽童謠集中那些朗朗上口的歌謠已經成為許多英國人精神文化深處的一部分,其影響難以估價。正像《黑麥奇案》中馬普爾小姐說的:
「如果一個人是聽鵝媽媽的童謠長大的——那可就意味深長了,不是嗎?」

3 鵝媽媽童謠集 -內容摘錄


TWEEDLE-DUM AND TWEEDLE-DEE

Tweedle-dum and Tweedle-dee
Resolved to have a battle,
For Tweedle-dum said Tweedle-dee
Had spoiled his nice new rattle.

Just then flew by a monstrous crow,
As big as a tar barrel,
Which frightened both the heroes so,
They quite forgot their quarrel.


THREE BLIND MICE

Three blind mice! See how they run!
They all ran after the farmer's wife,
Who cut off their tails with a carving knife.
Did you ever see such a thing in your life
As three blind mice?


HUMPTY DUMPTY

Humpty Dumpty sat on a wall,
Humpty Dumpty had a great fall;
All the King's horses, and all the King's men
Cannot put Humpty Dumpty in his place again.


THE LION AND THE UNICORN

The Lion and the Unicorn were fighting for the crown,
The Lion beat the Unicorn all around the town.
Some gave them white bread, and some gave them brown,
Some gave them plum-cake, and sent them out of town.


SING A SONG OF SIXPENCE

Sing a song of sixpence,
A pocket full of rye;
Four-and-twenty blackbirds
Baked in a pie!

When the pie was opened
The birds began to sing;
Was not that a dainty dish
To set before the king?

The king was in his counting-house,
Counting out his money;
The queen was in the parlor,
Eating bread and honey.

The maid was in the garden,
Hanging out the clothes;
When down came a blackbird
And snapped off her nose.


THE DEATH AND BURIAL OF POOR COCK ROBIN

Who killed Cock Robin?
"I," said the sparrow,
"With my little bow and arrow,
I killed Cock Robin,"

Who saw him die?
"I," said the fly,
"With my little eye,
I saw him die."

Who caught his blood?
"I," said the fish,
"With my little dish,
I caught his blood."

Who'll make his shroud?
"I," said the beetle,
"With my thread and needle.
I'll make his shroud."

Who'll carry the torch?
"I," said the linnet,
"I'll come in a minute,
I'll carry the torch."

Who'll be the clerk?
"I," said the lark,
"If it's not in the dark,
I'll be the clerk."

Who'll dig his grave?
"I," said the owl,
"With my spade and trowel
I'll dig his grave."

Who'll be the parson?
"I," said the rook,
"With my little book,
I'll be the parson."

Who'll be chief mourner?
"I," said the dove,
"I mourn for my love,
I'll be chief mourner."

Who'll sing a psalm?
"I," said the thrush,
"As I sit in a bush.
I'll sing a psalm."

Who'll carry the coffin?
"I," said the kite,
"If it's not in the night,
I'll carry the coffin."

Who'll toll the bell?
"I," said the bull,
"Because I can pull,
I'll toll the bell."

All the birds of the air
Fell sighing and sobbing,
When they heard the bell toll
For poor Cock Robin.

4 鵝媽媽童謠集 -影響



由於這些歌謠中洋溢著的濃厚英國氣息,後世的許多作家都喜歡從其中汲取素材,如被稱為「偵探小說女王」的阿加莎·克里斯蒂,維多利亞時代的作家劉易斯·卡羅爾,以及日本漫畫家由貴香織里。
阿加莎·克里斯蒂的偵探小說中經常出現鵝媽媽童謠集里的歌謠,有時甚至直接拿來作書名,如在《黑麥奇案(A pocket full of rye)》的書名直接取自在書中占核心地位的歌謠Sing a song of sixpence。
劉易斯·卡羅爾的童話《愛麗絲漫遊奇境記》與《愛麗絲鏡中世界奇遇記》中也有很多地方與鵝媽媽童謠集密切相連,《愛麗絲鏡中世界奇遇記》尤甚,裡面的很多角色如TWEEDLE-DUM和TWEEDLE-DEE這對雙胞胎、Humptydumpty、獅子和獨角獸(Lion and the Unicorn),都出自童謠里的故事。
更多的中國年輕讀者則可能是從由貴香織里筆下知道鵝媽媽童謠集的。以創作華麗陰暗作品著稱的由貴香織里,她的13卷漫畫《毒伯爵該隱》中引用了許多鵝媽媽童謠中的歌謠,以此來渲染那種維多利亞式的氣息。然而有一點經常被人誤會:《毒伯爵該隱》中引用的那些陰暗的童謠並不都是出自鵝媽媽童謠集,很多是出自格林兄弟收集的德國民謠;而出自鵝媽媽童謠集的部分也有很多被用在與原作風格相當不符的場合,比如書中某幅該隱坐在破碎的蛋中的扉頁圖,配的文字「蛋打破了/蛋打破了/國王的全部人馬/也不能再將其修補」出自鵝媽媽中的童謠Humptydumpty。Humptydumpty是什麼人?從那幅唯美的扉頁來看,也許有人會對其抱有比較美麗的猜測,然而……Humptydumpty其實是英國傳說中的一個大胖子,之所以會被譯成「蛋」,是因為他的身體已經胖到了和雞蛋同一形狀……



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