標籤: 暫無標籤

rap是一個黑人俚語中的詞語,相當於「談話」(talking),產自紐約貧困黑人聚居區。它以在機械的節奏聲的背景下,快速地訴說一連串押韻的詩句為特徵。這種形式來源之一是過去電台節目主持人在介紹唱片時所用的一種快速的、押韻的行話性的語言,深受廣大樂迷的喜愛。

 

1 rap -簡介

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說唱(Rap)是一個黑人俚語中的詞語,相當於「談話」(talking),產自紐約貧困黑人聚居區。它以在機械的節奏聲的背景下,快速地訴說一連串押韻的詩句為特徵。這種形式來源之一是過去電台節目主持人在介紹唱片時所用的一種快速的、押韻的行話性的語言。萊普的歌詞幽默、風趣,常帶諷刺性,80年代尤其受到黑人歡迎。最有代表性的樂隊是「公開的敵人」(Public Enemy)。萊普有時也稱「希普-霍普」(hip-hop)。實際上,希普-霍普的含義更寬,泛指當時紐約街頭文化的各種成分,除萊普外,還有:(萊普經常採用的)用手把放在唱機轉盤上的唱片前後移動,發出有節奏的刮擦聲;唱片播放員(DJ)在轉換唱片拼接唱片音樂片斷時,聽不出中斷痕迹的技法;霹靂舞等等。



I  Introduction

Rap or Rap Music, genre of rhythm-and-blues music (R&B) that consists of rhythmic vocals declaimed over musical accompaniment. The accompaniment generally consists of electronic drum beats combined with samples (digitally isolated sound bites) from other musical recordings. The first rap recording was made in 1979 and the genre rose to prominence in the United States in the mid-1980s. Although the term rap is often used interchangeably with hip-hop, the latter term encompasses the subculture that rap music is simply one part of. The term hip-hop derives from one of the earliest phrases used in rap, and can be found on the seminal recording 「Rapper』s Delight」 (1979) by the Sugarhill Gang. In addition to rap music, the hip-hop subculture also comprises other forms of expression, including break dancing and graffiti art as well as a unique slang vocabulary and fashion sense.

介紹

斥責或說唱音樂, 的節奏和藍色音樂(R&B) 風格包括節奏性vocals 巧辯了在音樂陪同。陪同一般包括電子鼓敲打與樣品(數字式地被隔絕的酣然的叮咬) 被結合從其它音樂錄音。1979 年第一斥責紀錄被創造了並且風格上升了到突起在美國在80 年代中期。雖然期限斥責互換性經常被使用與配合敲打併以節律唱誦的音樂, 後者期限包含亞文化群, 說唱音樂是簡單地一份。期限配合敲打併以節律唱誦的音樂從最早期的片語的當中一個獲得被使用在斥責, 和可能被發現在精液錄音"交談者的歡欣" (1979) 由Sugarhill 幫會。除說唱音樂之外, 配合敲打併以節律唱誦的音樂亞文化群並且包括其它形式表示, 包括斷裂跳舞和街道畫藝術並且一個獨特的俗話辭彙量和流行觀念。

Rap originated in the mid-1970s in the South Bronx area of New York City. The rise of rap in many ways parallels the birth of rock and roll in the 1950s (see Rock Music: Rock and Roll): Both originated within the African American community and both were initially recorded by small, independent record labels and marketed almost exclusively to a black audience. In both cases, the new style gradually attracted white musicians, a few of whom began performing it. For rock and roll it was a white singer from Mississippi, Elvis Presley, who broke into the Billboard magazine popular music charts. For rap it was a white group from New York, the Beastie Boys, and the hit song 「Walk This Way」 (1986), a collaboration of the black rap group Run-DMC and the white hard-rock band Aerosmith. Soon after 1986, the use of samples and declaimed vocal styles became widespread in the popular music of both black and white performers, significantly altering previous notions of what constitutes a legitimate song, composition, or musical instrument.

斥責發起於70 年代中期在紐約南Bronx 地區。斥責的上升用許多方式平行搖滾樂誕生在50 年代(參見搖滾樂: 搖滾樂): 發源在非裔美國人的社區和兩個心頭由小, 獨立紀錄標籤記錄了和幾乎完全最初地被銷售了對黑人觀眾。到兩個案件, 新樣式逐漸吸引了白音樂家, 一些誰開始執行它。為搖滾樂這是一位白歌手從密西西比, Elvis Presley, 打破廣告牌雜誌流行音樂圖。為斥責這是一個白色小組從紐約, Beastie 男孩, 並且流行歌曲"步行這樣" (1986), 黑斥責小組的合作跑DMC 和白色堅硬岩石帶Aerosmith 。在1986 年以後, 對樣品的用途和被巧辯的聲音樣式變得普遍在黑色和白色執行者流行音樂, 極大修改什麼的早先概念構成一個合法的歌曲、構成, 或樂器。

II  Musical Elements
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A rap group typically consists of at least one rapper and a disc jockey (DJ); two or more rappers are common. In groups with two, the rappers generally serve as foils for one another, alternating or completing lines and verses in a seamless pattern. The rap often uses a call-and-response format typical of much African American music. The wordplay in a rap is rooted in African and African American verbal games, known as the dozens and signifying. Precursors of rap who drew upon the same wordplay traditions include the Jamaican toasters (DJs, also known as dub artists, who talk over recorded music) of the late 1960s and 1970s, African American radio DJs from the 1940s through the 1970s, and black American poets of the 1960s including the Last Poets and the Watts Prophets. Rap vocals typically emphasize lyrics and wordplay over melody and harmony, achieving interest through rhythmic complexity and variations in the timing of the lyrics. Lyric themes can be broadly categorized under three headings: those that concern human relationships, those that chronicle and often embrace the so-called gangsta lifestyle of the inner cities, and those that address contemporary political issues or aspects of black history.

音樂元素

斥責小組典型地包括至少一個交談者和音樂節目主持人(DJ); 二個或更多交談者是共同。在小組與二, 交談者一般起箔作用對於互相,交替或完成線和詩歌在一個無縫的樣式。斥責經常使用一個叫和反應格式特點非裔美國人音樂。文字遊戲在斥責根源於非洲和非裔美國人口頭比賽, 通認作為十二個和符號化。得出同樣文字遊戲傳統斥責的前體包括牙買加多士爐(DJs, 亦稱配音藝術家, 談記錄的音樂) 60 年代後期和70 年代, 非裔美國人收音機DJs從40 年代通過70 年代, 和60 年代的黑人美國詩人包括最後詩人和瓦特先知。斥責vocals 典型地強調抒情詩和文字遊戲結束曲調和和諧, 達到在抒情詩的時間上興趣通過節奏性複雜和變化。抒情歌題材可能寬廣地被分類在三個標題之下: 那些有關人的關係, 那些記載和經常接受市內貧民區的所謂的gangsta 生活方式, 和那些論及黑歷史的當代政治問題或方面。
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Underpinning the rapper』s vocals is the separately recorded musical accompaniment, known as a backing track. In general, backing tracks for rap recordings emphasize rhythmic accompaniment and timbre (quality of tone) rather than harmony. Furthermore, many rap songs lack chord changes altogether, influenced in part by the highly rhythmic style of R&B music called funk. Originally a DJ created backing tracks by playing two records, switching back and forth between them in a technique known as cutting and mixing. Occasionally the DJ mixed one recording over another so that both were heard simultaneously. Other techniques used in early recordings were scratching (rotating a vinyl record backward and forward by hand to create rhythmic sound effects) and quick mixing (combining short sound bites to create a sound collage).

加固交談者的vocals 是分開地記錄的音樂陪同, 以依託軌道著名。總之, 支持軌道為斥責錄音強調節奏性陪同和音色(口氣的質量) 而不是和諧。此外, 許多說唱音樂缺乏弦一共改變, 影響一部分由R&B 音樂叫的funk 高度節奏性樣式。DJ 最初創造了依託軌道由演奏二個紀錄, 交換反覆在他們在技術以切口著名和混合之間。偶爾地DJ 混合了一錄音另以便兩個同時聽見了。其它技術被使用在早期的錄音抓(轉動唱片落後和向前用手創造節奏性音響效果) 並且快混合(結合短的酣然的叮咬創造一張酣然的拼貼畫) 。

In 1982 computer-generated sound from synthesizers, including programmable drum machines, began to be used along with snippets from preexisting recordings. With the arrival of digital technology in 1983, sampling began to replace the turntable style of cutting and mixing. With sampling, DJs were able to access precise digital sound bites and reconstruct them into new sound patterns or collages. Sampling eventually facilitated the layering of found sound (sound that exists prior to and independently from its use by the rap artist), enabling rappers such as Public Enemy to place seven or eight samples on top of each other. In conjunction with sampling and programmed beats, a number of rap artists, including Run-DMC and Gang Starr, sometimes used live musicians in creating backing tracks.

1982 計算機造出的聲音從合成器, 包括可編程序的鼓機器, 開始被使用與小片一起從事先存在的錄音。用數字技術到來, 1983 年抽樣開始替換轉盤樣式切口和混合。以採樣, DJs 能訪問精確數字式酣然的叮咬和重建他們入新酣然的樣式或拼貼畫。最終抽樣促進了在之前存在和獨立地從它的用途由說唱藝術家) 的分層堆積被發現的聲音(聲音, 使交談者譬如公敵安置七個或八個樣品在彼此頂部。與採樣和被編程的敲打一道, 一定數量的說唱藝術家, 包括跑DMC 和幫會Starr, 有時半新活音樂家在創造依託軌道。

III  History

A  The Roots of Rap

Rap music originated as a cross-cultural product. Most of its important early practitioners—including Kool Herc, D.J. Hollywood, and Afrika Bambaataa—were either immigrants or first-generation Americans of Caribbean ancestry. Herc and Hollywood are both credited with introducing the Jamaican style of cutting and mixing into the musical culture of the South Bronx. By most accounts Herc was the first DJ to buy two copies of the same record for just a 15-second break (rhythmic instrumental segment) in the middle. By mixing back and forth between the two copies he was able to double, triple, or indefinitely extend the break. In so doing, Herc effectively deconstructed and reconstructed so-called found sound, using the turntable as a musical instrument.
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歷史

斥責根

說唱音樂發源作為一個cross-cultural 產品。多數它重要及早實習者包括Kool Herc, D.J. 好萊塢, 和Afrika Bambaataa 是或移民或加勒比祖先的第一代美國人。Herc 和好萊塢相信介紹切口牙買加樣式和混合入南Bronx 的音樂文化。由多數帳戶Herc 是第一DJ 買同樣紀錄的二個拷貝為15第二個斷裂(節奏性有助段) 在中部。由混合反覆在二個拷貝之間他能加倍, 使, 或不確定地擴大斷裂成三倍。這樣作, Herc deconstructed和有效地重建了所謂的被發現的聲音, 使用轉盤作為一個樂器。

While he was cutting with two turntables, Herc would also perform with the microphone in Jamaican toasting style—joking, boasting, and using myriad in-group references. Herc』s musical parties eventually gained notoriety and were often documented on cassette tapes that were recorded with the relatively new boombox, or blaster, technology. Taped duplicates of these parties rapidly made their way through the Bronx, Brooklyn, and uptown Manhattan, spawning a number of similar DJ acts. Among the new breed of DJs was Afrika Bambaataa, the first important Black Muslim in rap. (The Muslim presence would become very influential in the late 1980s.) Bambaataa often engaged in sound-system battles with Herc, similar to the so-called cutting contests in jazz a generation earlier. The sound system competitions were held at city parks, where hot-wired street lamps supplied electricity, or at local clubs. Bambaataa sometimes mixed sounds from rock-music recordings and television shows into the standard funk and disco fare that Herc and most of his followers relied upon. By using rock records, Bambaataa extended rap beyond the immediate reference points of contemporary black youth culture. By the 1990s any sound source was considered fair game and rap artists borrowed sounds from such disparate sources as Israeli folk music, bebop jazz records, and television news broadcasts.

當他用二個轉盤切開, Herc 並且會執行與話筒在牙買加敬酒樣式耍笑, 吹噓, 和使用無數的在小組參考。Herc 的音樂黨最終被得到的惡名和經常被提供了在被記錄以相對地新boombox 的盒式磁帶, 或爆裂葯, 技術。這些黨錄音的複製品迅速地做了他們的方式通過Bronx 、布魯克林, 和uptown 曼哈頓, 產生一定數量相似的DJ 行動。在DJs 之中新養殖是Afrika Bambaataa, 第一重要黑人穆斯林在斥責。(回教存在會變得非常顯要在80年代晚期。) Bambaataa 及早經常參與了與Herc 的聲音系統爭鬥, 相似與所謂的切口比賽在爵士樂世代。伴音系統競爭被拿著在城市公園,hot-wired 街燈提供電, 或在地方俱樂部。Bambaataa 有時混合了聲音從岩石音樂錄音並且電視節目入標準funk 和迪斯科經歷那Herc 並且大多他的追隨者依靠了。由使用岩石紀錄, Bambaataa 擴大了斥責在直接參考點當代黑人青年文化之外。在90 年代以前任一個聲源認為公平競賽並且說唱藝術家從象以色列民間音樂、bebop 爵士樂紀錄, 和電視新聞廣播的如此不同的來源借用了聲音。
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In 1976 Grandmaster Flash introduced the technique of quick mixing, in which sound bites as short as one or two seconds are combined for a collage effect. Quick mixing paralleled the rapid-editing style of television advertising used at the time. Shortly after Flash introduced quick mixing, his partner Grandmaster Melle Mel composed the first extended stories in rhymed rap. Up to this point, most of the words heard over the work of disc jockeys such as Herc, Bambaataa, and Flash had been improvised phrases and expressions. In 1978 DJ Grand Wizard Theodore introduced the technique of scratching to produce rhythmic patterns.

1976 年高段棋手一剎那介紹了技術快混合, 酣然的叮咬一樣短象一兩秒被結合為拼貼畫作用。快混合平行了電視迅速編輯的樣式做廣告當時被使用。在閃光之後被介紹的快混合, 他的夥伴高段棋手Melle 麥組成了第一被擴大的故事在押韻的斥責。由這點決定, 大多詞聽見在音樂節目主持人工作譬如Herc, Bambaataa, 和閃光是被即興創作的片語和表示。在1978 DJ 盛大巫術師西奧多介紹了技術抓導致節奏性樣式。

B  Rap Music

In 1979 the first two rap records appeared: 「King Tim III (Personality Jock),」 recorded by the Fatback Band, and 「Rapper』s Delight,」 by the Sugarhill Gang. A series of verses recited by the three members of the Sugarhill Gang, 「Rapper』s Delight」 became a national hit, reaching number 36 on the Billboard magazine popular music charts. The spoken content, mostly braggadocio spiced with fantasy, was derived largely from a pool of material used by most of the earlier rappers. The backing track for 「Rapper』s Delight」 was supplied by hired studio musicians, who replicated the basic groove of the hit song 「Good Times」 (1979) by the American disco group Chic.

說唱音樂

在1979 第一二個斥責紀錄出現: "Tim 國王III (個性Jock)," 記錄了由Fatback 帶, 和"交談者的歡欣,"由Sugarhill 幫會。一系列的詩歌由Sugarhill 幫會的三名成員背誦, "交談者的歡欣" 成為了全國命中,到達第號36 在廣告牌雜誌流行音樂圖。講話的內容, 主要說大話加香料以幻想, 從材料水池主要被獲得了由大多更加早期的交談者用於。依託軌道為"交談者的歡欣" 由僱用的演播室音樂家供應了, 複製流行歌曲"好時期" 基本的凹線(1979) 由美國迪斯科小組Chic 。

Perceived as novel by many white Americans, 「Rapper』s Delight」 quickly inspired 「Rapture」 (1980) by the new-wave band Blondie, as well as a number of other popular records. In 1982 Afrika Bambaataa』s 「Planet Rock」 became the first rap record to use synthesizers and an electronic drum machine. With this recording, rap artists began to create their own backing tracks rather than simply offering the work of others in a new context. A year later Bambaataa introduced the sampling capabilities of the emulator synthesizer on 「Looking for the Perfect Beat」 (1983).

察覺作為小說由許多白美國人, "交談者的歡欣" 迅速啟發了"著迷" (1980) 由新揮動帶Blondie, 並且一定數量的其它普遍的紀錄。1982 年Afrika Bambaataa 的"行星岩石" 成為了第一斥責紀錄使用合成器和一個電子鼓機器。以這錄音, 說唱藝術家開始創造他們自己的依託軌道而不是簡單地提供其他人的工作在新上下文。一年後Bambaataa 介紹了模擬器合成器的採樣能力在"尋找完善的敲打" (1983) 。

Sampling brought into question the ownership of sound. Some artists claimed that by sampling recordings of a prominent black artist, such as funk musician James Brown, they were challenging white corporate America and the recording industry』s right to own black cultural expression. More problematic was the fact that rap artists were also challenging Brown』s and other musicians』 right to own, control, and be compensated for the use of their intellectual creations. By the early 1990s a system had come about whereby most artists requested permission and negotiated some form of compensation for the use of samples. Some commonly sampled performers, such as funk musician George Clinton, released compact discs (CDs) containing dozens of sound bites specifically to facilitate sampling. One effect of sampling was a newfound sense of musical history among black youth. Earlier artists such as Brown and Clinton were celebrated as cultural heroes and their older recordings were reissued and repopularized. By the late 1990s, however, licensing samples had become so costly that many rappers began to create backing tracks and sounds from scratch instead.

採樣帶領了進入問題聲音歸屬。一些藝術家聲稱了由抽樣一位著名黑人藝術家的錄音, 譬如funk 音樂家詹姆斯・布朗, 他們是富挑戰性白色公司美國和錄音產業的對自己的黑文化表示。更加疑難事實說唱藝術家並且向布朗的和其它音樂家挑戰的對自己, 控制, 和被補嘗對他們的智力創作的用途。在90 年代初期以前系統出現藉以多數藝術家請求了允許和談判了某種報償的形式至於對樣品的使用。一些共同地抽樣了執行者, 譬如funk 音樂家喬治・柯林頓, 發布了光碟(CDs) 具體地包含許多酣然的叮咬促進抽樣。採樣的一個作用是音樂歷史新發現的感覺在黑人青年之中。更加早期的藝術家譬如布朗和柯林頓慶祝了當文化英雄和他們的更舊的錄音被補發了和repopularized 。在90 年代末期以前, 然而, 准許樣品變得很昂貴, 許多交談者開始改為創造依託軌道和聲音從頭。

C  Politically Conscious Rap and Gangsta Rap

During the mid-1980s, rap moved from the fringes to the mainstream of the American music industry as white musicians began to embrace the new style. In 1986 rap reached the top ten on the Billboard pop charts with 「(You Gotta) Fight for Your Right (To Party!)」 by the Beastie Boys and 「Walk This Way」 by Run-DMC and Aerosmith. Known for incorporating rock music into its raps, Run-DMC became one of the first rap groups to be featured regularly on MTV (Music Television). Also during the mid-1980s, the first female rap group of consequence, Salt-N-Pepa, released the singles 「The Show Stoppa」 (1985) and 「Push It」 (1987); 「Push It」 reached the top 20 on Billboard』s pop charts.

政治上神志清楚的斥責和Gangsta 斥責

在80 年代中期期間, 斥責從邊緣行動了向美國音樂界的主流當白音樂家開始接受新樣式。在1986 斥責被到達名列前茅十在廣告牌流行音樂圖以"(您得到了) 鬥爭為您權利(對黨!)" 由Beastie 男孩和"走這樣" 由跑DMC 和Aerosmith 。知道為合併搖滾樂入它的斥責, 跑DMC 成為了第一斥責小組的當中一個通常以為特色在MTV (音樂電視) 。並且在80 年代中期期間, 第一女性斥責小組後果, 鹽N Pepa, 發布了選拔"展示Stoppa" (1985) 並且"推擠它" (1987); "推擠它" 到達了名列前茅20 在廣告牌的流行音樂圖

In the late 1980s a large segment of rap became highly politicized, resulting in the most overt social agenda in popular music since the urban folk movement of the 1960s. The groups Public Enemy and Boogie Down Productions epitomized this political style of rap. Public Enemy came to prominence with their second album, It Takes a Nation of Millions to Hold Us Back (1988), and the theme song 「Fight the Power」 from the motion picture Do the Right Thing (1989), by African American filmmaker Spike Lee. Proclaiming the importance of rap in black American culture, Public Enemy』s lead rapper, Chuck D, referred to it as the 「black CNN」 (Cable News Network).

在80 年代晚期斥責的大段成為了高度參與政事, 造成最公開的社會議程在流行音樂從60 年代的都市民間運動。小組公敵和Boogie 生產下來代表了斥責這政治樣式。公敵走向突起與他們的第二冊頁, 它採取成千上萬的國家拿著我們(1988), 並且主題歌"戰鬥力量" 從電影做正確的事(1989), 由非裔美國人攝製者釘李・Proclaiming斥責的重要性在黑美國文化, 公敵的主角交談者, Chuck D, 提到了它作為"黑CNN" (有線新聞網) 。

Alongside the rise of political rap came the introduction of gangsta rap, which attempts to depict an outlaw lifestyle of sex, drugs, and gang violence in inner-city America. In 1988 Straight Outta Compton, the first major album of gangsta rap, was released by the Southern California rap group Niggaz with Attitude (N.W.A). Songs from the album generated an extraordinary amount of controversy for their violent images and inspired protests from a number of organizations, including the FBI (Federal Bureau of Investigation). However, attempts to censor gangsta rap only served to publicize the music and make it more attractive to both black and white youths. N.W.A became a platform for launching the solo careers of some of the most influential rappers and rap producers in the gangsta style, including Dr. Dre, Ice Cube, and Eazy-E.

沿著政治斥責的上升來了gangsta 斥責的介紹, 試圖描述性、藥物, 和幫會暴力禁止生活方式在貧民區美國。在1988 平直的Outta 坎頓, gangsta 斥責第一主要冊頁, 由南部的加利福尼亞斥責小組Niggaz 發布了以態度(N.W.A) 。歌曲從冊頁引起了非凡相當數量爭論為他們的猛烈圖象和啟發了抗議從一定數量的組織, 包括FBI (聯邦調查局) 。但是, 企圖檢察gangsta 斥責只用於公開音樂和使它有吸引力對黑色和白色青年時期。N.W.A 成為了一個平台為開始一些的獨奏事業最顯要的交談者和斥責生產商在gangsta 樣式, 包括Dre, 冰塊博士, 和Eazy-E 。

IV  Current Trends

In the 1990s rap became increasingly eclectic, demonstrating a seemingly limitless capacity to draw samples from any and all musical forms. A number of rap artists have borrowed from jazz, using samples as well as live music. Some of the most influential jazz-rap recordings include Jazzamatazz (1993), an album by Boston rapper Guru, and 「Cantaloop (Flip Fantasia)」 (1993), a single by the British group Us3. In the United Kingdom, jazz-rap evolved into a genre known as trip-hop, the most prominent artists and groups being Tricky and Massive Attack. As rap became increasingly part of the American mainstream in the 1990s, political rap became less prominent while gangsta rap, as epitomized by the Geto Boys, Snoop Doggy Dogg, Biggie Smalls (The Notorious B.I.G.), Tupac Shakur, and Puff Daddy (P. Diddy) grew in popularity. In the late 1990s some rappers—such as Master P in New Orleans, Louisiana, and Puff Daddy in New York City—became entrepreneurs as well, starting highly successful record labels as well as myriad spin-off companies. Popular rappers as the 21st century began included Jay-Z, Ja rule, Eve, Eminem, Outkast, and Mystikal.

當前的趨向

在90 年代之內斥責變得越來越折衷, 展示表面上不可限量的容量得出樣品從任何和所有音樂形式。一定數量的說唱藝術家從爵士樂借用了, 使用樣品並且實況音樂。一些最顯要爵士樂敲擊錄音包括Jazzamatazz (1993), 冊頁由波士頓交談者宗師, 和"Cantaloop (輕碰幻想曲)" (1993), 唯一由英國的小組US3 。在英國, 爵士樂敲擊轉變成風格以旅行蛇麻草、最著名的藝術家和小組著名是棘手和巨型的攻擊。當斥責越來越成為了一部分的美國主流在90 年代, 政治斥責變得較不突出當gangsta 斥責, 依照由Geto 男孩, Snoop 小狗Dogg, Biggie Smalls (臭名遠揚的B.I.G.), Tupac Shakur, 和吹爸爸(P. Diddy) 代表增長在大眾化。在90 年代晚期某一交談者這樣作為大師P 在新奧爾良、路易斯安那, 和吹爸爸在紐約以及無數的附帶公司城市成為了企業家, 開始高度成功的記錄標籤。普遍的交談者作為21 世紀開始了包括的傑伊Z, Ja 規則, 伊芙、Eminem 、Outkast, 和Mystikal 。

V  Social Significance

Since the mid-1980s rap music has greatly influenced both black and white culture in North America. Much of the slang of hip-hop culture, including such terms as dis, fly, def, chill, and WACK, have become standard parts of the vocabulary of a significant number of young people of various ethnic origins. Many rap enthusiasts assert that rap functions as a voice for a community without access to the mainstream media. According to advocates, rap serves to engender self-pride, self-help, and self-improvement, communicating a positive and fulfilling sense of black history that is largely absent from other American institutions. Political rap artists have spurred interest in the Black Muslim movement as articulated by minister Louis Farrakhan, generating much criticism from those who view Farrakhan as a racist. Gangsta rap has also been severely criticized for lyrics that many people interpret as glorifying the most violent and misogynistic (woman-hating) imagery in the history of popular music. The style』s popularity with middle-class whites has been attacked as vicarious thrill-seeking of the most insidious sort. Critics note that violence has been more than just a popular subject for rap lyrics; Tupac Shakur and Biggie Smalls were both gunned down in separate gang-style killings in 1996 and 1997. Defenders of gangsta rap argue that the music is a legitimate form of artistic expression and accurately portrays life in inner-city America. Whatever one』s stance on these issues, rap music inarguably has carved out a space for the expression of inner-city black culture that is unprecedented in American history.


社會意義

從80 年代中期說唱音樂很大地影響了黑和白色文化在北美洲。許多配合敲打併以節律唱誦的音樂文化俗話, 包括如此期限象dis, 飛行、def 、冷顫, 和wack, 有各種各樣的種族起源的青年人的一個重大數字的辭彙量的成為的標準部份。許多斥責熱心者斷言, 斥責功能作為聲音為一個社區沒有對主流媒介的通入。根據提倡者, 斥責用於造成自己自豪感、自助, 和self-improvement, 通信正面和履行是主要缺席的從其它美國機關黑歷史的感覺。政治說唱藝術家依照由部長路易斯・Farrakhan 明確表達激勵了興趣在黑回教運動上, 引起批評從那些觀看Farrakhan 作為種族主義者。Gangsta 斥責嚴厲地並且被批評了為許多人解釋作為讚美最猛烈和misogynistic 的抒情詩(婦女恨的) 成像在流行音樂的歷史上。樣式的大眾化以中產階級白色被攻擊了象vicarious 興奮尋找最陰險的排序。評論家注意到, 暴力是更多比一個普遍的主題為斥責抒情詩; Tupac Shakur 和Biggie Smalls 開了槍下來在分開的幫會樣式殺害1996 年和1997 年。gangsta 斥責的防禦者爭辯說, 音樂是藝術性的表示的一個合法的形式和準確地刻畫生活在貧民區美國。什麼某人的姿態關於這些問題, 說唱音樂inarguably 雕刻了在空間之外為貧民區是史無前例的在美國歷史上的黑色文化表示。



Rap,在中國人的字典里有兩個詞可以代替,「說唱」和「饒舌」。前者是一種源於民間的古老藝術,後者是一種婆婆媽媽,唧唧歪歪的作風(如《大話西遊》里的唐僧)。據考證中國早在十一世紀就有世界上最長的說唱史詩《格薩爾王》,比美國早了整整九百年,這樣看來Rap還算得上咱中國的第五大發明呢。

 

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